Skip to main content

Christian IX

Christian IX, 1818–1906, king of Denmark (1863–1906). A member of the cadet line of Sonderburg-Glücksburg, he succeeded Frederick VII, last of the direct line of Oldenburg. The London Conference of 1852 had settled on him the contested succession to the duchies of Schleswig-Holstein, but in 1863 Christian accepted parliament's annexation of Schleswig to the Danish crown. This precipitated war (1864) with Prussia and Austria, in which Christian lost Schleswig, Holstein, and Lauenburg. In 1866 the Danish constitution was revised, granting the upper chamber more power than the lower. During Christian's reign there was continual liberal agitation for a more democratic constitution. He was succeeded by his son Frederick VIII. A younger son became king of Greece as George I.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Christian IX." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 19 Nov. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Christian IX." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (November 19, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/christian-ix

"Christian IX." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved November 19, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/christian-ix

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.