Skip to main content

Christian II

Christian II, 1481–1559, king of Denmark and Norway (1513–23) and Sweden (1520–23), son and successor of King John. After several unsuccessful attempts, he asserted claim to Sweden by force. However, his wholesale massacre of Swedish nobles at Stockholm (1520) alienated the Swedes, who raised Gustavus Vasa to the throne as Gustavus I, thus ending the Kalmar Union. In Denmark, Christian earned the hatred of the nobles and high clergy by thorough reforms in favor of the lower and middle classes, by inviting Lutheran preachers to Copenhagen, and by placing Sigbrit, mother of his Dutch mistress, in charge of the finances of the realm. In 1523 the nobles rebelled (particularly in Jutland), deposed Christian, and chose his uncle, Frederick I, as king. Christian fled, but in 1532 he was captured while attempting to recover the throne. He was imprisoned until his death. A gifted and educated ruler despite his despotic methods, Christian II did much to advance learning in Denmark.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Christian II." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . 25 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Christian II." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . (April 25, 2019).

"Christian II." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved April 25, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.