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Artemisium (är´təmĬsh´ēəm), cape, N Euboea (now Évvoia), Greece, named for a great temple of Artemis. Off the cape in 480 BC was fought a naval battle of the Persian Wars. The delay won by the defense of Thermopylae under Leonidas helped make it possible for the Greeks to ward off the Persian fleet, although the fighting was indecisive and the Greeks were eventually forced to withdraw.