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Camel

Camel

Rock group

Goose Flies Camel Over the Hump

Selected discography

Sources

Discussing the use of lights and films during his bands performances, Camel guitarist and vocalist Andrew Latimer told Melody Maker in 1976, This is the first time weve used films, and I dont want us to get into it too much. Were not a very bopping band, so its nice for the audience to have something to watch.

The British progressive rock group Camel formed in 1972 with the blues-rock trio Brew, consisting of Latimer, bassist Doug Ferguson, and drummer Andy Ward. After backing singer Philip Goodhand-Tait on an album, the trio was joined by organist and vocalist Peter Bardens and began rehearsing original material. Camels sound featured extensive interplay between Latimers guitar and Bardenss keyboards, underpinned by Wards swinging percussion. Vocals were not the bands main focus. During the recording of Camels debut album, the producer suggested that the group find a better singer. After auditioning 30 unsuitable vocalists, the search was abandoned and the recording sessions continued.

The band became a fixture on the English college circuit. In a 1973 interview with Melody Maker, Peter Bardens related the importance of these venues to Camel, I think the college circuit plays a very important part in any new bands future. They are one of those rare places where small bands get the chance to play, and whats more, they are always good payers. One early concert appearance that provided Camel with underground credibility was on October 8, 1973 at the Greasy Truckers Party at Dingwalls Dance Hall in London. A live cut from that show, God of Light Revisited Parts 1, 2, and 3 formed one side of a rare double album commemorating the event, which also featured contributions by progressive contemporaries Gong and Henry Cow.

As a result of constant touring, the bands second album Mirage sold much better than its self-titled debut. Bardens told Melody Maker, We started the band from scratch. We had no money and no equipment. In three years weve done four tours of Britain, and were the sort of band that creeps up on you.

Goose Flies Camel Over the Hump

Camels first taste of success came with its 1975 album The Snow Goose, an all-instrumental work based on Paul Gallicos childrens book. The album reached both British and American charts. Latimer commented to Melody Maker about the writing of the album: When wed written the piece we were really pleased, then again, it wasnt until wed finished the album that we realized what wed got. Andy Ward continued, Snow Goose has opened up a reaction in the audience and the press that wed been waiting for for a long time. The band was voted Melody Makers Brightest Hope in that magazines 1975 poll, and performed at The Royal Albert Hall with the London Symphony Orchestra.

Moonmadness, released in 1976, featured several songs inspired by the personalities of the band members, including Chord Change for Bardens, Air Born for Latimer, Another Night for Ferguson, and Lunar Sea for Ward. Toward the end of the recording sessions for that album, bassist Doug Ferguson left to form the group Head Waiter. His replacement, Richard Sinclair, was the bassist and vocalist for veteran progressive groups Caravan and Hatfield and the North. On Rain Dances, Sinclair became the distinctive vocalist Camel had lacked. A Melody Maker contributor wrote, [Sinclairs] vocals were a rare treat, totally unaffected by the Americanisation most rock singers turned to without question, and delivered with at one and pitch that would delight a choir master.

In 1978 Peter Bardens left Camel, replaced by two more ex-Caravan members, Richards cousin David Sinclair and Jan Schelhaas, causing Camel to earn the nickname Caramel by the music press. The band also added former King Crimson sax and flute player Mel Collins. Before recording sessions could be held, however, Richard and David Sinclair departed.

For the Record

Members include Peter Bardens (member c. 1971-79), organ, keyboards, vocals; Colin Bass (joined c. 1979), bass, vocals; Paul Burgess (joined c. 1984), drums; Mel Collins (member c. 1978-79), sax, flute; Doug Ferguson (member c. 1971-76), bass; Andrew Latimer, guitar, vocals; Jan Schelhaas (member c. 1978-79), keyboards; Ton Scherpenzeel (joined c. 1984), keyboards; David Sinclair (member c. 1978-79), organ, piano; Richard Sinclair (born June 6, 1948, Canterbury, Kent, England; member c. 1977-79), bass, vocals; Andy Ward (born September 28, 1952, London, England; member c. 1971-81), drums, percussion.

Formed c. 1971, in London, England; backed Philip Goodhand-Tait on album and tour, 1971; released debut album Camel on MCA, 1973; appeared at Greasy Truckers Party, 1973; played at Royal Albert Hall with London Symphony Orchestra, 1975; formed Camel Productions, 1991.

Addresses: Record company; Camel Productions, P. O. Box 4786, Mountain View, CA 94040.

Camel found itself deserted by the British music press during the early eighties, as press attention shifted to punk rock. Despite sellout tours of Europe, the groups records no longer sold well. Andrew Latimer told Melody Maker in 1980, Sometimes its frustrating if you do something you think is a work of art and it gets totally ignored. Another major setback occurred when Andy Ward left the band due to the pressures of touring and a distaste for the music industry in general, leaving Latimer as the last original member of Camel.

Latimer was pressured by the record company to record more pop-oriented material on 1982s The Single Factor which featured members of The Alan Parsons Project. Peter Bardens makes a guest appearance on the track Sasquatch along with founding Genesis guitarist Anthony Philips. Following the release of Stationary Travellerin 1984, inspired by the social and physical division of Berlin, Camel took a seven-year hiatus.

Andrew Latimer relocated to California during the early nineties, and formed Camel Productions to release new and archival Camel material. Camels nineties output includes Dust and Dreams, inspired by John Steinbecks The Grapes of Wrath. Harbour of Tears was inspired by Latimers search for his familys roots following his fathers death. In 1997 Camel completed a world tour, performing to sell-out crowds in nine countries. Latimer and Camel Productions also produce and distribute an annual newsletter which keeps Camel in the public eye.

In addition to a prolific solo career, Bardens enjoyed a brief stint down memory lane with Ward for a nostalgically titled group Mirage, performing a few select dates in 1994. Since leaving Camel in the early eighties, Ward has been involved with several other projects, including progressive rockers Marillion, Richard Sinclairs Caravan of Dreams, and his current band, English psychedelic rockers, The Bevis Frond.

Throughout its 25-year existence, Camel has scaled the heights of fame as well as the depths of mainstream media derision, acquiring a dedicated following along the way. Through Andrew Latimers company, Camel Productions, Camel remains alive and well.

Selected discography

Albums

(With Philip Goodhand-Tait), I Think Ill Write a Song, Vertigo, 1972.

Camel, MCA, 1973, reissued Camel Productions, 1992.

God of Light Revisited Parts 1, 2, and 3 from Greasy Truckers Party, Greasy Truckers, 1973.

Mirage, Janus, 1974, reissued Deram, 1994.

The Snow Goose, Janus, 1975, reissued Deram, 1994.

Moonmadness, Janus, 1976, reissued London, 1992.

Rain Dances, Janus, 1977, reissued Deram, 1992.

Breathless, Arista, 1978, reissued One Way, 1994.

A Live Record, London, 1978.

I Can See Your House from Here, Arista, 1979, reissued One Way, 1994.

Nude, Passport, 1981, reissued London, 1995.

The Single Factor, Passport, 1982.

Stationary Traveler, Decca, 1984.

Compact Compilation (rec. 1973-1975), Rhino, 1985.

Pressure Points - Live in Concert, Decca, 1985.

Dust and Dreams, Camel Productions, 1991.

Never Let Go, Camel Productions, 1993.

On the Road 1972, Camel Productions, 1993.

Echoes, The Retrospective (rec. 1973-1991), Polygram, 1993.

On the Road 1982, Camel Productions, 1994.

Harbour of Tears, Camel Productions, 1996.

On the Road 1981, Camel Productions, 1997.

Related projects

(With Richard Sinclair, David Sinclair, Jan Schelhaas), Caravan, Canterbury Tales: The Best of Caravan 1969-1975, Polygram, 1994.

David Sinclair, Moon over Man (recorded 1978), Voiceprint, 1994.

(With Andy Ward and Richard Sinclair), Todd Dillingham, The Wilde Canterbury Dream, Voiceprint, 1994.

(With Andy Ward and Richard Sinclair), Caravan of Dreams, HTD, 1994.

(With Andy Ward), Adrian Shaw, Tea for the Hydra, Woronzow, 1994.

(With Andy Ward), The Bevis Frond, Sprawl, Woronzow, 1994.

(With Andy Ward), The Bevis Frond, Superseeder, Woronzow, 1995.

(With Andy Ward), Richard Sinclair, R.S.V.P., Sinclair Songs, 1996.

(With Andy Ward), Mary Lou Lord, Martian Saints (EP), Kill Rock Stars, 1997.

(With Andy Ward), The Deviants, Memphis Psychosis and The Bevis Frond, Red Hair from Ptolemaic Terrascope Terrastock Special Edition CD, Flydaddy, 1997.

Peter Bardens solo projects

The Answer, Verve, 1970.

Write My Name in Dust, Verve, 1971.

Heart to Heart, Arista, 1979.

Seen One Earth, Capitol, 1987.

Speed of Light, Capitol, 1988.

Watercolours, Miramar, 1991.

Further Than You Know, Miramar, 1993.

(With Mirage), Double Live, Voiceprint, 1994.

Big Sky, HTD, 1995.

Sources

Books

Joynson, Vernon, Tapestry of Delights: The Comprehensive Guide to British Music of the Beat, R&B, Psychedelic, and Progressive Eras 1963-1976, Borderline Productions, 1995.

Periodicals

Melody Maker, February 3, 1973; July 6, 1974; November 23, 1974; July 12, 1975; September 13, 1975; October 25, 1975; April 10, 1976; September 24, 1977; November 12, 1977; January 19, 1980.

Online

www.tau.ac.il/~ofirz/camel/welcome.htm

www.alpes-net.fr/~bigbang/calyx.html

www.terrascope.org

Jim Powers

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camel

camel, ruminant mammal of the family Camelidae. The family consists of three genera, the true camels of Asia (genus Camelus); the wild guanaco and the domesticated alpaca and llama, all of South America (genus Lama); and the vicuña, also of South America (genus Vicugna). The hooves on members of the family are much reduced, growing only on the upper surface of the outside toes of the feet.

The two species of true camel are the single-humped Arabian camel, or dromedary, Camelus dromedarius, a domesticated animal used in Arabia and North Africa, and the two-humped Bactrian camel (C. bactrianus) of central Asia. Some wild Bactrian camels exist in Turkistan and Mongolia. The humps are storage places for fat. Camels range in color from dirty white to dark brown and have long necks, small ears, tough-skinned lips, and powerful teeth, some of which are sharply pointed. The camel uses the mouth in fighting. Adaptations to desert life include broad, flat, thick-soled two-toed feet that do not sink into the sand; the ability to go without drinking for several days—or longer if juicy plants are available; and valvular nostrils lined with hairs for protection against flying sand. Horny pads help to protect the chest, knees, and thigh joints against injury from the hard surfaces on which the camel sleeps.

Strong camels usually carry from 500 to 600 lb (230 to 270 kg) and cover about 30 mi (48 km) a day. Some Bactrian camels can transport 1,000 lb (450 kg). A light, fleet breed of dromedary is used for riding and not for bearing heavy loads. The name dromedary was formerly applied to any swift riding camel.

Geologic findings indicate that the camel originated in North America, that one group migrated to Asia and the other to South America, and that both became extinct in North America probably after the glacial period. Camels are classified in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Artiodactyla, family Camelidae.

See studies by H. Gauthier-Pilters and A. I. Dagg (1981) and R. Irwin (2010).

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Camels

CAMELS

domesticated ruminant of central asia, arabia, and north africa.

A domesticated animal, with one or two humps, that is used as a mode of transportation in the Middle East, the camel is a survivor of an almost vanished group of ungulates (hoofed mammals) that once populated all the large land masses of the world except Australia. Its close relatives are the South American llama, alpaca, guanaco, and vicuña. The only camels existing today are two domesticated species: the Arabian dromedary, Camelus dromedarius (or ibil ), which has one hump and is used for riding; and the two-humped Bactrian camel, Camelus bactrianus, which has shorter legs and is more heavily built. A few survive in the Gobi Desert.

Traditional belief has it that one-humped camels do not adapt well to cold or moist climates nor the two-humped camel to extremely hot climates. Both store fat in their humps, have long necks suitable for feeding on bushes and trees, and have padded feet suited for travel on sand but ill-suited for travel on mud. Both have the capacity to go long intervals without water. Camels do not store water as some folk stories allege. Rather, they conserve it through highly efficient kidneys that allow them to process water with a high concentration of impurities; they also have the capacity to absorb heat by allowing their blood temperature to rise, without ill effect. The horn of Africa constitutes the largest and most abundant camel territory in the world and today Somalia alone has a camel population exceeding four million. Camel milk is a dietary staple in Somalia. Camels exist as a form of wealth and nourishment and form part of the traditional bride-price.


Bibliography


Bulliet, Richard. The Camel and the Wheel. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990.

Mia Bloom

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camel

cam·el / ˈkaməl/ • n. 1. a large, long-necked ungulate mammal (genus Camelus) of arid country, with long slender legs, broad cushioned feet, and either one or two fat-storing humps on the back. The camel family (Camelidae) also includes the llama and its relatives. ∎  a fabric made from camel hair. ∎  a yellowish-fawn color like that of camel hair. 2. an apparatus for raising a sunken ship, consisting of one or more watertight chests to provide buoyancy. ∎  a large floating fender used to keep a vessel off the dock.

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dromedary

drom·e·dar·y / ˈdräməˌderē/ • n. (pl. -dar·ies) an Arabian camel, esp. one of a light and swift breed trained for riding or racing. ORIGIN: Middle English: from Old French dromedaire or late Latin dromedarius (camelus) ‘swift camel,’ based on Greek dromas, dromad- ‘runner.’

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camel

camel Large, hump-backed, ungulate mammal of the family Camelidae. There are two species – the two-humped Bactrian of central Asia and the single-humped Arabian dromedary. Its broad, padded feet and ability to travel long periods without water make the camel a perfect desert animal. Genus Camelus.

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camel

camel the camel can survive for long periods without food or drink, chiefly by using up the fat reserves in its hump; from this comes the name ship of the desert.

Camels are the emblem of the 4th-century Egyptian martyr St Mennas, probably because pilgrims to his shrine arrive by camel.

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dromedary

dromedary light fleet one-humped camel. XIV. — AN. *dromedarie, OF. dromedaire (mod. dromadaire), or late L. dromedārius, for *dromadārius, f. dromas, dromad- dromedary (- Gr. dromás, -ad- runner; cf. prec.); see -ARY.

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camel

camel OE. camel, reinforced in ME. by OF. cameil, etc. (mod. chameau) :- L. camēlus (also *camellus) — Gr kámēlos, of Sem. orig. (Heb. gāmāl).

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dromedary

dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) See CAMELIDAE.

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dromedary

dromedary: see camel.

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camel

camel See CAMELIDAE.

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camel

camel •sewellel •camel, enamel, entrammel, mammal, trammel •miasmal, phantasmal •Carmel •abysmal, baptismal, catechismal, dismal, paroxysmal •animal • minimal • lachrymal •maximal •decimal, infinitesimal •septimal • optimal • primal • Rommel •abnormal, conformal, formal, normal, paranormal, subnormal •chromosomal • Kümmel •Brummell, pommel, pummel •epidermal, geothermal, isothermal, pachydermal, taxidermal, thermal

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dromedary

dromedarybeery, bleary, cheery, dearie, dreary, Dun Laoghaire, eerie, eyrie (US aerie), Kashmiri, leery, peri, praemunire, query, smeary, teary, theory, weary •Deirdre • incendiary • intermediary •subsidiary •auxiliary, ciliary, domiciliary •apiary • topiary • farriery • furriery •justiciary •bestiary, vestiary •breviary • aviary • hosiery •diary, enquiry, expiry, fiery, friary, inquiry, miry, priory, spiry, wiry •podiatry, psychiatry •dowry, floury, flowery, loury, showery, towery •brewery • jewellery (US jewelry) •curie, de jure, fioriture, fury, houri, Jewry, jury, Manipuri, Missouri, moory, Newry, tandoori, Urey •statuary • actuary • sanctuary •obituary • sumptuary • voluptuary •January • electuary • ossuary •mortuary •Bradbury, Cadbury •blackberry, hackberry •cranberry • waxberry •Barbary, barberry •Shaftesbury • raspberry •bayberry, blaeberry •Avebury • Aylesbury • Sainsbury •bilberry, tilbury •bribery •corroboree, jobbery, robbery, slobbery, snobbery •dogberry • Roddenberry • Fosbury •strawberry • Salisbury •crowberry, snowberry •chokeberry •Rosebery, Shrewsbury •blueberry, dewberry •Dewsbury • Bloomsbury • gooseberry •blubbery, rubbery, shrubbery •Sudbury • mulberry • huckleberry •Bunbury • husbandry • loganberry •Canterbury • Glastonbury •Burberry, turbary •hatchery • archery •lechery, treachery •stitchery, witchery •debauchery • butchery • camaraderie •cindery, tindery •industry • dromedary • lapidary •spidery • bindery • doddery •quandary • powdery • boundary •bouldery • embroidery •prudery, rudery •do-goodery • shuddery • thundery •prebendary • legendary • secondary •amphorae • wafery •midwifery, periphery •infantry • housewifery • spoofery •puffery • sulphury (US sulfury) •Calgary •beggary, Gregory •vagary •piggery, priggery, whiggery •brigandry • bigotry • allegory •vinegary • category • subcategory •hoggery, toggery •pettifoggery • demagoguery •roguery • sugary •buggery, skulduggery, snuggery, thuggery •Hungary • humbuggery •ironmongery • lingerie • treasury •usury • menagerie • pageantry •Marjorie • kedgeree • gingery •imagery • orangery • savagery •forgery • soldiery • drudgery •perjury, surgery •microsurgery •hackery, quackery, Thackeray, Zachary •mountebankery • knick-knackery •gimcrackery • peccary • grotesquerie •bakery, fakery, jacquerie •chickaree, chicory, hickory, Terpsichore, trickery •whiskery • apothecary •crockery, mockery, rockery •falconry • jiggery-pokery •cookery, crookery, rookery •brusquerie •puckery, succory •cuckoldry •calorie, gallery, Malory, salary, Valerie •saddlery • balladry • gallantry •kilocalorie • diablerie • chandlery •harlotry • celery • pedlary •exemplary •helotry, zealotry •nailery, raillery •Tuileries •ancillary, artillery, capillary, codicillary, distillery, fibrillary, fritillary, Hilary, maxillary, pillory •mamillary • tutelary • corollary •bardolatry, hagiolatry, iconolatry, idolatry •cajolery, drollery •foolery, tomfoolery •constabulary, vocabulary •scapulary • capitulary • formulary •scullery • jugglery • cutlery •chancellery • epistolary • burglary •mammary • fragmentary •passementerie • flimflammery •armory, armoury, gendarmerie •almonry •emery, memory •creamery • shimmery • primary •rosemary • yeomanry •parfumerie, perfumery •flummery, Montgomery, mummery, summary, summery •gossamery • customary • infirmary •cannery, granary, tannery •canonry •antennary, bimillenary, millenary, venery •tenantry • chicanery •beanery, bicentenary, catenary, centenary, deanery, greenery, machinery, plenary, scenery, senary, septenary •disciplinary, interdisciplinary •hymnary • missionary •ordinary, subordinary •valetudinary • imaginary • millinery •culinary • seminary • preliminary •luminary • urinary • veterinary •mercenary • sanguinary •binary, finery, pinery, quinary, vinery, winery •Connery • Conakry • ornery • joinery •buffoonery, poltroonery, sublunary, superlunary •gunnery, nunnery •consuetudinary • visionary •exclusionary • legionary • pulmonary •coronary • reactionary • expansionary •concessionary, confessionary, discretionary •confectionery, insurrectionary, lectionary •deflationary, inflationary, probationary, stationary, stationery •expeditionary, petitionary, prohibitionary, traditionary, transitionary •dictionary • cautionary •ablutionary, counter-revolutionary, devolutionary, elocutionary, evolutionary, revolutionary, substitutionary •functionary •diversionary, reversionary •fernery, quaternary, ternary •peppery • extempore • weaponry •apery, drapery, japery, napery, papery, vapoury (US vapory) •frippery, slippery •coppery, foppery •popery • dupery • trumpery •February • heraldry • knight-errantry •arbitrary • registrary • library •contrary • horary • supernumerary •itinerary • honorary • funerary •contemporary, extemporary, temporary •literary • brasserie • chancery •accessory, intercessory, pessary, possessory, tesserae •dispensary, incensory, ostensory, sensory, suspensory •tracery •pâtisserie, rotisserie •emissary • dimissory •commissary, promissory •janissary • necessary • derisory •glossary • responsory • sorcery •grocery • greengrocery •delusory, illusory •compulsory • vavasory • adversary •anniversary, bursary, cursory, mercery, nursery •haberdashery •evidentiary, penitentiary, plenipotentiary, residentiary •beneficiary, fishery, judiciary •noshery • gaucherie • fiduciary •luxury • tertiary •battery, cattery, chattery, flattery, tattery •factory, manufactory, olfactory, phylactery, refractory, satisfactory •artery, martyry, Tartary •mastery, plastery •directory, ex-directory, interjectory, rectory, refectory, trajectory •peremptory •alimentary, complementary, complimentary, documentary, elementary, parliamentary, rudimentary, sedimentary, supplementary, testamentary •investigatory •adulatory, aleatory, approbatory, celebratory, clarificatory, classificatory, commendatory, congratulatory, consecratory, denigratory, elevatory, gyratory, incantatory, incubatory, intimidatory, modificatory, participatory, placatory, pulsatory, purificatory, reificatory, revelatory, rotatory •natatory • elucidatory • castigatory •mitigatory • justificatory •imprecatory • equivocatory •flagellatory • execratory • innovatory •eatery, excretory •glittery, jittery, skittery, twittery •benedictory, contradictory, maledictory, valedictory, victory •printery, splintery •consistory, history, mystery •presbytery •inhibitory, prohibitory •hereditary • auditory • budgetary •military, paramilitary •solitary • cemetery • limitary •vomitory • dormitory • fumitory •interplanetary, planetary, sanitary •primogenitary • dignitary •admonitory, monitory •unitary • monetary • territory •secretary • undersecretary •plebiscitary • repository • baptistery •transitory •depositary, depository, expository, suppository •niterie •Godwottery, lottery, pottery, tottery •bottomry • watery • psaltery •coterie, notary, protonotary, rotary, votary •upholstery •bijouterie, charcuterie, circumlocutory •persecutory • statutory • salutary •executory •contributory, retributory, tributary •interlocutory •buttery, fluttery •introductory • adultery • effrontery •perfunctory • blustery • mediatory •retaliatory • conciliatory • expiatory •denunciatory, renunciatory •appreciatory, depreciatory •initiatory, propitiatory •dietary, proprietary •extenuatory •mandatary, mandatory •predatory • sedentary • laudatory •prefatory • offertory • negatory •obligatory •derogatory, interrogatory, supererogatory •nugatory •expurgatory, objurgatory, purgatory •precatory •explicatory, indicatory, vindicatory •confiscatory, piscatory •dedicatory • judicatory •qualificatory • pacificatory •supplicatory •communicatory, excommunicatory •masticatory • prognosticatory •invocatory • obfuscatory •revocatory • charlatanry •depilatory, dilatory, oscillatory •assimilatory • consolatory •voluntary • emasculatory •ejaculatory •ambulatory, circumambulatory, perambulatory •regulatory •articulatory, gesticulatory •manipulatory • copulatory •expostulatory • circulatory •amatory, declamatory, defamatory, exclamatory, inflammatory, proclamatory •crematory • segmentary •lachrymatory •commentary, promontory •informatory, reformatory •momentary •affirmatory, confirmatory •explanatory • damnatory •condemnatory •cosignatory, signatory •combinatory •discriminatory, eliminatory, incriminatory, recriminatory •comminatory • exterminatory •hallucinatory • procrastinatory •monastery • repertory •emancipatory • anticipatory •exculpatory, inculpatory •declaratory, preparatory •respiratory • perspiratory •vibratory •migratory, transmigratory •exploratory, laboratory, oratory •inauguratory • adjuratory •corroboratory • reverberatory •refrigeratory • compensatory •desultory • dysentery •exhortatory, hortatory •salutatory • gustatory • lavatory •inventory •conservatory, observatory •improvisatory •accusatory, excusatory •lathery •feathery, heathery, leathery •dithery, slithery •carvery •reverie, severy •Avery, bravery, knavery, quavery, Savery, savory, savoury, slavery, wavery •thievery •livery, quivery, shivery •silvery •ivory, salivary •ovary •discovery, recovery •servery • equerry • reliquary •antiquary • cassowary • stipendiary •colliery • pecuniary • chinoiserie •misery • wizardry • citizenry •advisory, provisory, revisory, supervisory •causerie, rosary

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Camel

CAMEL

CAMEL (Heb. גָּמָל, gamal), one of the first animals domesticated by man. Its bones have been found in Egypt from the time of the beginning of the First Dynasty, thus removing doubts as to the plausibility of Abraham receiving camels from Pharaoh (Gen. 12:16). The camel is included in the Bible among the animals that chew the cud but are not cloven-footed, and is prohibited as food (Lev. 11:4; Deut, 14:7). Unlike other ruminants, which have four stomachs, the camel has only three, and while it is cloven-footed, this is not visible from the outside on account of the cushions coverings its feet (see *Dietary Laws). The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius) was bred in Ereẓ Israel and adjacent countries. In ancient times the camel was used as the chief means of transporting people and goods, especially on long journeys. It is often mentioned in connection with the Patriarchs, and was used in war (Judg. 7:12). David appointed an official in charge of his camels (i Chron. 27:30). The size of a herd of camels was indicative of its owner's wealth. Thus Job is reported to have had at first 3,000 and finally 6,000 camels (Job 1:3; 42:12). Its wool was used for making tent cloth and clothes and the prohibition of sha'atnez ("material containing a mixture of wool and linen") does not apply to camel's wool (Kil. 9:1). There are several breeds of camel, some of which are used for transport and plowing, while others are fleet-footed, the latter being apparently the bekher or bikhrah ("the young camel") of Isa. 60:6 and Jer. 2:23. The Talmud refers to the difference between the Persian and the Bedouin camel, the former having a long, the latter a short neck (bk 55a). The ne'akah may also have been a special breed of camel which had to be led by a nose-ring (cf. Shab. 5:1). In mishnaic times, Jewish cameleers were regarded as mostly wicked (Nid. 14a; and Tos., ibid.). Although the camel has largely lost its value as a beast of burden, it still represents the principal asset of the Bedouin in desert regions where thousands of camels are to be found. They are used by the Bedouin of the Negev for plowing and in some Arab villages in Israel for transport, especially for bringing the harvest to the threshing floor.

bibliography:

Lewysohn, Zool, 134–9; Tristram, Nat Hist, 58–66; Dalman, Arbeit, 6 (1939), 147–60; F.S. Bodenheimer, Ha-Ḥai be-Arẓot ha-Mikra, 2 (1956), 339–46. add. bibliography: Feliks, Ha-Ẓome'aḥ, 213.

[Jehuda Feliks]

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Camel

Camel

Late in 1913, the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJRT) launched its new Camel Cigarettes. It was the first American blend cigarette, made largely from Burley and Bright tobaccos, and heavily sweetened, with just a smattering of Turkish tobacco. Reflecting the popularity of Turkish tobacco cigarettes, the Camel pack proclaimed that it contained "Turkish & Domestic Blend Cigarettes." Listing Turkish first gave the cigarettes an exotic air of far greater importance than its actual presence justified. The Middle Eastern-sounding name, chosen in part because it would be easy to recall, and packaging displaying pyramids and palm trees further strengthened the cigarettes' appeal.

The marketing campaign for Camel was as innovative as the product. RJRT purchased large teaser newspaper advertisements over a four-week period. The first showed only the word Camel and the image of a camel. The second announced "The Camels are coming," and the third stated, "tomorrow there'll be more Camels in this town than in all Asia and Africa combined." Only in the fourth week did the ads identify Camel as a new cigarette brand.

Contrary to the then-contemporary practices of regional marketing, Camel was marketed nationally. Additionally, Camel was designed to make a profit at 10 cents a pack, while many other brands sold for 15 cents. To counteract any impression of tawdriness, RJRT placed notices, which still appear on Camel packs sold today, stating "Don't look for premiums or coupons, as the cost of the tobaccos blended in Camel Cigarettes prohibits the use of them."

Camels were an instant hit with the American public, aided by their popularity with soldiers during World War I as a quick, convenient smoke and by the fact that they appeared at about the time when more women were learning to smoke; sales were also assisted by the disruption of Turkish tobacco supplies. In the first year, 400 million Camels were manufactured. Two billion were produced in 1915 and 10 billion in 1916, as Camel became America's first truly national cigarette brand. By 1921, RJRT produced 18 billion Camels a year, capturing almost half of the American market. In 1921 cigarettes became the best-selling tobacco product for the first time in the United States, and, in that same year, one of the most famous advertising slogans of all-time was born: "I'd walk a mile for a Camel."

This cigarette was aimed at a mass market and it became a cigarette for the common people. As a result, the camel image became almost a cliché. During the 1920s and 1930s, graphics reminiscent of the Camel pack appeared on smokers' accessories, and table lighters were made in the shape of a camel.

From the mid-1940s through the end of the 1950s, Camel was the best-selling American cigarette. RJRT resisted making changes to its premier brand; indeed, public outcry over a minor packaging revision in 1958 caused RJRT to withdraw it. Despite the addition of Camel Filters in 1966 and Camel Lights somewhat later, the brand's market share steadily declined into the 1980s. Then the "Joe Camel" advertising campaign, introduced in 1987, rejuvenated the brand, giving it a more youthful image.◆ By 1997, when RJRT discontinued the campaign amid pressure from antismoking groups, Camel's market share, especially among the youngest smokers, had increased dramatically. Since then, Camel marketing has sought to project a youthful image, particularly with the recent "Kamel" and "Camel Exotic" brand extensions.

See "Youth Marketing" for a photograph of a Joe Camel billboard.

See Also Gitanes/Gauloises; Lucky Strike; Marlboro; Virginia Slims.

▌ JOSEPH PARKER

BIBLIOGRAPHY

DeSmith, David. A Camel Named Joe. Boston: duCap Books, 1998.

Kluger, Richard. Ashes to Ashes: America's Hundred-Year Cigarette War, the Public Health, and the Unabashed Triumph of Philip Morris. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.

Tilley, Nannie M. The R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.

American blend cigarette cigarette made from blend of various American tobaccos, for example, Bright (also called Virginia) and Burley. Can also refer to cigarette containing American tobaccos blended with similar Asian or African tobaccos.

Turkish tobacco a variety of mild, aromatic tobacco. Ironically, Turkish tobacco is not native to Turkey but was imported from North America. Turkish tobacco leaves are smaller and more delicate than American varieties. It is usually blended with Bright Leaf (Virginia) and Burley in cigarettes.

market share the fraction, usually expressed as a percentage, of total commerce for a given product controlled by a single brand; the consumer patronage for a given brand or style of product.

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Camels

Camels

Old World camels

New World camels

Resources

Camels and their relatives, the llamas, guanacos, alpacas, and vicuñs, are long-legged, hoofed mammals in the family Camelidae in order Artiodactyla, whose members have an even number of toes. All camelids have a cleft in their upper lip, and all have the ability to withstand extremes of heat and cold.

Camelids evolved in North America and spread into South America, Asia, and Africa. Camels in Asia and Africa today have been domesticated for up to 3,500 years. The two smaller South American species of camel have been bred to develop two purely domestic species, the llama and the alpaca.

Like cattle, camelids are cud-chewing animals, or ruminants. However, unlike other ruminants, which have four chambers to their stomachs, camelids have only three. Both males and females have the same number of teeth for feeding, but the front incisor teeth of the males are large and sharp, making them useful for fighting. Camelids have oval-shaped red blood cells, whereas all other mammals have round red blood cells.

Both New World and Old World camels communicate in a variety of ways, including whistling, humming, and spitting. In zoos, camels have been known to spit the contents of their first stomach at annoying visitors.

Old World camels

The Bactrian, or two-humped, camel (Camelus ferus) is the largest species, native to the rocky deserts in Asia. These wild camels were the ancestors of the domestic Bactrian camel, C. bactrianus. These animals are named for the Baktria region of ancient Persia (now Iran), and can withstand severe cold as well as extreme heat (up to 122°F [50°C]). Bactrian camels have a thick and shaggy coat, with very long hair growing downward from their necks. Domesticated bactrians have longer hair than the wild species.

The Bactrian camel stands about 6.5 ft (2 m) high at the shoulder and weighs up to 1,500 lb (680 kg) and can run up to 40 mph (65 km/h). Bactrian camels can carry loads of up to 1,000 lb (454 kg), about twice as much as a dromedary can carry. Although Bactrian camels breed well in zoos, they are almost extinct in the wild, with probably only 900 left in the Gobi Desert of China and Mongolia.

The most common camel is the one-humped Arabian, or dromedary camel, which is known today only as a domesticated species, C. dromedarius. Although the name dromedary has now been given to all one-humped camels, it originated with a special breed developed for great speed in racing. Racing camels can also run over great distancescovering more than 100 mi (160 km) in a day.

Dromedary camels are taller but lighter than Bactrian camels, reaching 7 ft (2.1 m) at the shoulder, and an average weight of about 1,200 lb (550 kg). The animals hair can vary in color from dark brown to white, though most are the tan color referred to as camels hair. The Arabian camel has long been extinct in the wild, though feral populations (domestic animals living in the wild) occur in various parts of the world, including central Australia where the herds number up to 50,000.

Although one-humped and two-humped camels are given separate species names, they can interbreed fairly easily. The product of interbreeding, called a tulu, usually has two humps. This is not surprising in view of the fact that the one-humped camel actually has another hump that lies unnoticed in the shoulder region.

Both species are used primarily as pack animals in desert countries, where they travel at a leisurely pace of about 25 mi (40 km) a day, carrying both goods and people, mounted in saddles that fit over the single hump or between the two humps. A camels hump contains up to 80 lb (36 kg) of fat, not water, which provides the animal with energy when no food is available. The hump shrinks and becomes flabby as the fat supply is used up, but it firms up again when the animal eats plants and drinks water. A camel can go for a week and even travel 100 mi (160 km) or more in a desert summer without drinking. Camels can withstand a great deal of dehydration and can lose more than 40% of their body weight without harm. In winter, camels can go for many weeks without drinking. When dehydrated camels do reach water, they make up for any previous lack by drinking as much as possible very quickly. They have been known to drink as much as 3040 gal (114150l) in a single session to rehydrate.

Other adaptations of camels for dealing with desert conditions include a reduced number of sweat

glands that only function in extreme heat or exertion. At heat stresses that would cause most animals to sweat to cool their bodies, and thus use up water, the camels body temperature can temporarily rise several degrees, a strategy known as heat storage. The thick coat on the back of the camel prevents heat from the sun from being absorbed. The hoofed feet have broad, thick pads that provide a solid base on shifting sands. The thick, bushy eyebrows and double rows of eyelashes keep sand out of their eyes. Any sand that does enter the eye is dislodged by a transparent third eyelid that slides across the eye. Hair inside a camels ears prevents sand from easily blowing in the ear canal. In addition, camels can voluntarily squeeze shut both their slit-like nostrils and their mouth to prevent sand from entering. The camels mouth has a thick, leathery lining that prevents the thorny desert plants from damaging the mouth. The round, leathery knee-pads of camels protect their knees when they kneel on the hot sand or on hard rocky ground.

Camels are central to the survival and culture of the nomadic peoples of the Old World deserts. Camel hair, shed in large clumps, is woven into clothing and tents, while camel milk and meat provide nourishment, particularly on special occasions. Nomadic people often let their camels loose in the desert for several months at a time, which includes the mating season. Camels have a gestation period of about 1213 months, after which the mother camel gives birth to a single 80 lb (36 kg) offspring, every other year. The long-legged calves become independent at about four years, and domesticated camels can live up to about 50 years.

New World camels

New World camels are native to the Andes Mountains of South America. The wild New World camels are the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna ) and the guanaco (Lama guanicoe ) while the llama (Lama glama ) and alpaca (Lama pacos ) are domestic animals.

Wild South American camels live primarily at high altitudes in both open grasslands and forests. Their family groups may include a male and half a dozen or so females, each with a single young. Young males are chased from the group when they are between a year and a year and a half old, then they join a bachelor herd until they can later form their own family groups. Young females join a new group and mate, producing young after a gestation period of about 11 to 12 months.

Vicuñas are extremely rare in the wild, and are small animals, often standing no more than 3 ft (90 cm) at the shoulder and weighing no more than about 110 lb (50 kg). Vicuñas, are alone among the camelids in having bottom incisor teeth that keep growing and enamel only on the outer tooth surface. This characteristic has led taxonomists to assign them to a separate genus. Vicuñas are fast runners that can readily cover the dry, open grasslands where they live at altitudes between 11,500 and 18,700 ft (3, 5005,700 m). Male vicuñas defend both a grazing territory and a sleeping territory.

Vicuña fur can be woven into one of the softest textiles known, and this fabric was, for many centuries, worn only by the Inca kings. After the Incan empire fell, vicuñas were no longer protected and were hunted for their meat and skins until they were close to extinction. By 1967, fewer than 10,000 animals left. Vicuñas are now protected in several Andean national parks, and while their numbers are climbing once again, their long-term survival depends on conservation efforts on their behalf.

The larger South American guanaco lives primarily in dry open country, from the coastal plains to the high mountains. Guanaco hair is cinnamon-colored on their backs and white on their underparts. Unlike the smaller vicuñas, they have dark faces. Guanacos stand about 6 ft (less than 2 m) tall, and are the tallest South American camelid, but are very light compared to camels, weighing only about 250 lb (113 kg). Most guanacos now live in Patagonia, a temperate large grassland in southern Argentina and Chile, and are found from sea level to about 14,000 ft (4,200 m). Male guanacos will mark their territories with piles of dung. Female guanacos give birth every two years. A newborn guanaco, called a chulengo, can run within minutes of being born. Young guanacos often make a playful prance in which they lift all four feet off the ground at once, and guanacos also like playing in the running stream water.

Starting about 6,0007,000 years ago, natives of the Andes Mountains bred the guanaco to develop two other domesticated camelids: the sure-footed llama, bred for its strength, endurance, and ability to carry great loads over steep mountains; and the longhaired alpaca.

Llamas stand only about 4 ft (1.2 m) at the shoulder. Usually only male llamas are used for the long pack trains, while the females are kept for breeding. An average male llama weighs about 200 lb (90 kg), but can carry a load weighing two-thirds that amount on its back, for about 1520 mi (2432 km) a day across mountain terrain. Llamas were used by the Incas to transport silver from their mountain mines.

The alpaca, the other domesticated breed, has long hair valued for warm blankets and clothing because it is soft, lightweight, and waterproof. Some breeds of alpaca have hair that almost reaches the ground before it is sheared. Llama hair is not used for weaving because it is too coarse. Llamas and alpacas are often crossed to get an animal that produces hair that is both sturdier and softer than either of the parents hair.

Resources

BOOKS

Arnold, Caroline. Camel. New York: Morrow Junior Books, 1992.

Green, Carl R., and William R. Sanford. The Camel. Wildlife Habits & Habitats series. New York: Crestwood House, 1988.

LaBonte, Gail. The Llama. Remarkable Animals series. Minneapolis: Dillon Press, 1989.

Torres, H. South American Camelids: An Action Plan for their Conservation. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1992.

Wexo, John B. Camels. Zoobooks series. San Diego, CA: Wildlife Education, 1999.

PERIODICALS

Hare, John. The Wild Bactrian Camel: A Critically Endangered Species. Endangered Species Update 2 (January-March 2004): 3235.

Kadwell, M., et al. Genetic Analysis Reveals the Wild Ancestors of the Llama and the Alpaca. Royal Society Journal 268 (2001): 25752584.

Wheeler, J., A. Russel, and H. Reden. Llamas and Alpacas: Pre-conquest Breeds and Post-Conquest Hybrids. Journal of Archaeological Science 22 (1995): 833840.

Jean F. Blashfield

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Camels

Camels

Camels and their relatives, the llamas, are longlegged, hoofed mammals in the family Camelidae in order Artiodactyla, whose members have an even number of toes. All camels have a cleft in their upper lip, and all have the ability to withstand great heat and great cold.

Camels evolved in North America and spread into South America , Asia , and Africa . Camels in Asia and Africa today have been domesticated for up to 3,500 years. The two smaller South American species of camel have been bred to develop two purely domestic species, the llama and the alpaca.

Like cattle, camels are cud-chewing animals, or ruminants. However, unlike other ruminants, which have four chambers to their stomachs, camels have only three. Both male and female camels have the same number of teeth for feeding, but the front incisor teeth of the males are large and sharp, making them useful for fighting. Camels have oval shaped red blood cells, whereas all other mammals have round red blood cells.

Both New World and Old World camels communicate in a variety of ways, including whistling, humming, and spitting. In zoos, camels have been known to spit the contents of their first stomach at annoying visitors.


Old world camels

The Bactrian, or two-humped, camel (Camelus ferus) is the largest species, native to the rocky deserts in Asia. These wild camels were the ancestors of the domestic Bactrian camel, C. bactrianus. These animals are named for the Baktria region of ancient Persia (now Iran), and can withstand severe cold as well as extreme heat (up to 122°F [50°C]. Bactrian camels have a thick and shaggy coat, with very long hair growing downward from their necks. Domesticated bactrians have longer hair than the wild species.

The Bactrian camel stands about 6.5 ft (2 m) high at the shoulder and weighs up to 1,500 lb (680 kg) and can run up to 40 mph (65 kph). Bactrian camels can carry loads of up to 1,000 lb (454 kg), about twice as much as a dromedary can carry. Although Bactrian camels breed well in zoos, they are almost extinct in the wild, with probably only a few hundred left in the Gobi Desert of Asia.

The most common camel is the one-humped Arabian, or dromedary camel, which is known today only as a domesticated species, C. dromedarius. Although the name "dromedary" has now been given to all onehumped camels, it originated with a special breed developed for great speed in racing. Racing camels can also run over great distances—covering more than 100 mi (160 km) in a day.

Dromedary camels are taller but lighter than Bactrian camels, reaching 7 ft (2.1 m) at the shoulder, and an average weight of about 1,200 lb (550 kg). The animals' hair can vary in color from dark brown to white, though most are the tan color referred to as "camel's hair." The Arabian camel has long been extinct in the wild, though feral populations (domestic animals living in the wild) occur in various parts of the world, including central Australia where the herds number up to 50,000.

Although one-humped and two-humped camels are given separate species names, they can interbreed fairly easily and are probably varieties of a single species. The product of interbreeding, called a tulu, usually has two humps. This is not surprising in view of the fact that the one-humped camel actually has another hump that lies unnoticeably in the shoulder region.

Both species are used primarily as pack animals in desert countries, where they travel at a leisurely pace of about 25 mi (40 km) a day, carrying both goods and people, mounted in saddles that fit over the single hump or between the two humps. A camel's hump contains 80 lb (36 kg) of fat , not water , which provides the animal with energy when no food is available. The hump shrinks and becomes flabby as the fat supply is used up, but it firms up again when the animal eats plants and drinks water. A camel can go for a week and even travel 100 mi (160 km) or more in a desert summer without drinking. Camels can withstand a great deal of dehydration and can lose more than 40% of their body weight without harm. In winter, camels can go for many weeks without drinking. When dehydrated camels do reach water, they make up for any previous lack by drinking as much as possible very quickly. They have been known to drink as much as 30-40 gal (114-150 l) in a single session to rehydrate.

Other adaptations of camels for dealing with desert conditions include a reduced number of sweat glands which only function in extreme heat or exertion. At heat stresses that would cause most animals to sweat to cool their bodies, and thus use up water, the camel's body temperature can temporarily rise several degrees, a strategy known as heat storage. The thick coat on the back of the camel prevents heat from the sun from being absorbed. The hoofed feet have broad, thick pads that provide a solid base on shifting sands. The thick, bushy eyebrows and double rows of eyelashes keep sand out of their eyes. Any sand that does enter the eye is dislodged by a transparent third eyelid that slides across the eye. Hair inside a camel's ears prevents sand from easily blowing in the ear canal. In addition, camels can voluntarily squeeze shut both their slit-like nostrils and their mouth to prevent sand from entering. The camel's mouth has a thick, leathery lining that prevents the thorny desert plants from damaging the mouth. The round, leathery kneepads of camels protect their knees when they kneel on the hot sand or on hard rocky ground.

Camels are central to the survival and culture of the nomadic peoples of the old world deserts. Camel hair, shed in large clumps, is woven into clothing and tents, while camel milk and meat provide nourishment, particularly on special occasions. Nomadic people often let their camels loose in the desert for several months at a time, which includes the mating season. Camels have a gestation period of about 14 months, after which the mother camel gives birth to a single 80 lb (36 kg) offspring, every other year. The long-legged calves, become independent at about four years, and domesticated camels can live up to about 50 years.


New world camels

New World camels are native to the Andes Mountains on the western side of South America. The wild New World camels are the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) and the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) while the llama and alpaca are domestic animals.

Wild South American camels live primarily at high altitudes in both open grasslands and forests . Their family groups may include a male and half a dozen or so females, each with a single young. Young males are chased from the group when they are between a year and a year and a half old, then they join a bachelor herd until they can later form their own family groups. Young females join a new group and mate, producing young after a gestation period of about 11 to 12 months.

Vicuñas are extremely rare in the wild, and are small animals, often standing no more than 3 ft (90 cm) at the shoulder and weighing no more than about 110 lb (50 kg). Vicuñas, are alone among the camels to have bottom incisor teeth that keep growing and enamel only on the outer surface. This characteristic has led taxonomists to assign them to a separate genus. Vicuñas are fast runners that can readily cover the dry, open grasslands where they live at altitudes between 11,500 and 18,700 ft (3,500-5,700 m). Male vicuñas defend both a grazing territory and a sleeping territory.

Vicuña fur can be woven into one of the softest textiles known and was for many centuries worn only by the Inca kings. After the Incan empire fell, Vicuñas were no longer protected, and were hunted for their meat and skins until they were close to extinction , with fewer than 10,000 animals left in 1967. Vicuñas are now protected in several Andean national parks, and their numbers are climbing once again.

The South American larger guanaco lives primarily in dry open country, from the coastal plains to the high mountains. Guanaco hair is cinnamon colored on their backs and white on their under parts. Unlike the smaller vicuñas, they have dark faces. Guanacos stand about 6 ft (less than 2 m) tall, and are the tallest South American camels, but are very light compared to camels, weighing only about 250 lb (113 kg). Most guanacos now live in Patagonia, a temperate large grassland in southern Argentina and Chile, and are found from sea level to about 14,000 ft (4,200 m). Male guanacos will mark their territories with piles of dung. Female guanacos give birth every two years with their newborn being called a chulengo, which can run within minutes of being born. Young guanacos often make a playful prance in which they lift all four feet off the ground at once, and guanacos also like playing in the running water of streams.

Starting about 4,000 years ago, natives of the Andes Mountains bred the guanaco to develop two other domesticated camels, the sure-footed llama (Lama glama), bred for its strength, endurance, and its ability to carry great loads over steep mountains, and the long-haired alpaca (Lama pacos).

Llamas stand only about 4 ft (1.2 m) at the shoulder. Usually only male llamas are used for the long pack trains, while the females are kept for breeding. An average male llama weighs about 200 lb (90 kg) but can carry a load weighing two-thirds that amount on its back, for about 15-20 mi (24-32 km) a day across mountain terrain. Llamas were used by the Incas to transport silver from their mountain mines.

The alpaca, the other domesticated breed, has long hair valued for warm blankets and clothing because it is soft, lightweight, and waterproof. Some breeds of alpaca have hair that almost reaches the ground before it is sheared. Llama hair is not used for weaving because it is too coarse. Llamas and alpacas are often crossed to get an animal that produces hair that is both sturdier and softer than either of the parents' hair.


Resources

books

arnold, caroline. camel. new york: morrow junior books, 1992.

camels. zoobooks series. san diego, ca: wildlife education,1984.

green, carl r., and william r. sanford. the camel. wildlifehabits & habitats series. new york: crestwood house, 1988.

labonte, gail. the llama. remarkable animals series. minneapolis: dillon press, 1989.

lavine, sigmund a. wonders of camels. new york: dodd,mead & company, 1979.

perry, roger. wonders of llamas. new york: dodd, mead &co., 1977.

stidworthy, john. mammals: the large plant-eaters. encyclopedia of the animal world. new york: facts on file, 1988.


Jean F. Blashfield

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