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Torres Vedras. The lines of Torres Vedras were a system of defensive fortifications constructed by Wellington's engineers in 1809, and were situated 40 miles north of Lisbon to protect the city from French attack during the Peninsular War. They consisted of a series of forts and gun emplacements in three lines stretching some 30 miles from the river Tagus to the sea. Wellington fell back on the lines in October 1810 and held Masséna's French army at bay. In November Masséna was forced to retire to Spain with his army in poor condition.
Richard A. Smith
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