Marianas trench, Marianas trough, or Marianas deep (mâr´ēăn´əz), elongated depression on the Pacific Ocean floor, 210 mi (338 km) SW of Guam. It is the deepest known depression on the earth's surface, having been measured by various means at 35,760–36,089 ft (10,900–11,000 m) below sea level at Challenger Deep. The Trieste, a U.S. navy bathyscape crewed by Swiss oceanographyer Jacques Piccard and U.S. Navy Lieutenant Donald Walsh, reached its bottom in 1960. A 1995 Japanese probe made what is probably the most accurate measurement of its depth (35,798.6 ft/10,911.5 m), and in 2009 a U.S. robotic vessel explored the seafloor of Challenger Deep. In 2012 James Cameron became the third person to descend to the Deep, in the submersible Deepsea Challenger. The Marianas Trench Marine National Monument, 95,216 sq mi (246,608 sq km), was established in 2009 to protect the submerged lands and waters around the trench and around the three northernmost Mariana Islands and 21 sites with undersea mud volcanoes and hydrothermal vents.
"Marianas trench." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 18, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marianas-trench
"Marianas trench." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved January 18, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/marianas-trench
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.
"Marianas Trench." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 18, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/marianas-trench
"Marianas Trench." A Dictionary of Ecology. . Retrieved January 18, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/science/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/marianas-trench