41,290sq km (15,942sq mi)
German 64%, French 19%, Italian 8%, Yugoslav 3%, Spanish 2%, Romansch 1%
French, German, Italian and Romansch (all official)
Christianity (Roman Catholic 46%, Protestant 40%)
Swiss franc = 100 centimes
Climate and VegetationThe climate varies with altitude. The plateau has warm summers and cold, snowy winters.Grassland covers c.30% of the land and arable land c.10%. Forests cover c.32%, and help to reduce the destructiveness of avalanches.
History and PoliticsOriginally occupied by the Celtic Helvetii, the region was taken by Romans in 58 bc. Ruled by Franks in the 6th century ad; it was later divided between Swabia and Burgundy. United within the Holy Roman Empire, it came under Habsburg rule in the 13th century. In 1291, the cantons, Schwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden, united against the Habsburgs. Traditionally led by William Tell, the Swiss League expanded and defeated the Habsburgs (1386, 1388). In 1499, victory over Emperor Maximilian I brought partial independence. Defeated by the French in 1515, the Swiss adopted neutrality. The Reformation caused religious divisions, but the Confederation survived to achieve independence in 1648. The French Revolutionary Wars led to the overthrow of the oligarchy and the establishment of the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803). In 1815, the Federation was fully re-established. The Congress of Vienna expanded it to 22 cantons and guaranteed its neutrality. A brief civil war led to the constitution of 1848, turning Switzerland into a federal state. In 1979, Jura became the 23rd canton. A referendum (1986) rejected Swiss membership of the United Nations (UN) to avoid compromising its neutrality. EU membership was also rejected in 1992. In 1995, the ruling coalition, led by the Christian Democrats, was re-elected. In 1999, Ruth Dreifuss became Switzerland's first woman president. In 2002, Switzerland voted to join the UN.
EconomyDespite lacking natural resources, Switzerland is wealthy and industrialized (2000 GDP per capita, US$28,600). Manufactures include chemicals, electrical equipment, machinery, precision instruments, watches, and textiles. Livestock, notably dairy farming, is the chief agricultural activity. Tourism is important, and Swiss banks attract worldwide investment.
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Jura (canton, Switzerland)
Jura (jŏŏr´ə, Fr. zhürä´, Ger. yōō´rä), canton (1993 pop. 68,300), 3,256 sq mi (840 sq km), NW Switzerland. In the Jura Mts., bordered by the Swiss cantons of Bern on the south and Solothurn in the east and by France in the north and west. Its capital is Delémont, and its chief rivers are the Doubs and Birs. Agricultural products, horses, and cattle are the major economic concerns. The traditional watchmaking industry has long been important in the Jura region; textiles and tobacco are also manufactured. The region that now comprises Jura had been part of Bern canton until dissension between Roman Catholics (largely French-speaking) and Protestants (largely German-speaking) led to requests for an independent canton of Jura. The vote came in 1978, and the following year Jura became Switzerland's 23d canton. The region was a prince bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire from 999 until the Congress of Vienna in 1815. It had had close ties to the Swiss Confederation since the Treaty of Westphalia (1648) and in 1815 it was made part of Bern canton.
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