Brighton

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Brighton. This was originally Brithelmston, a Sussex fishing village where, according to tradition, Charles II spent a night during his escape to France. Brighton developed rapidly from the mid-18th cent., when Dr Richard Russell recommended its health-giving air. It was patronized by Fanny Burney, Samuel Johnson (1770), and from 1784 by George, prince of Wales, five years before George III favoured Weymouth as a resort. Brighton's original classical Royal Pavilion, built by Henry Holland (1784), was redeveloped by Nash in oriental style with an Indian exterior and Chinese interior (1817). Queen Victoria sold the building to the town. Charles Dickens was a frequent visitor. The population in the 1990s was over 150,000.

Revd Dr William M. Marshall

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BRIGHTON

BRIGHTON , town on the south coast of England. Jews began to settle in Brighton in the middle of the 18th century. When the town became a fashionable resort, wealthy Jews flocked there, including the *Goldsmid family at the beginning of the 19th century and the *Sassoons at its end. A congregation was first organized in 1800 but soon fell apart. It was reorganized in 1821. Jewish affairs are coordinated by the Brighton and Hove Jewish Council. The Jewish population of Brighton and Hove was estimated in 1968 at 7,500. In the mid-1990s the combined Jewish population numbered approximately 10,000. The 2001 British census found that there were 3,358 Jews by religious affiliation in Brighton and Hove, although the actual figure was probably much higher. In 2004 Brighton continued to have a wide range of Jewish institutions, including four synagogues, two Orthodox, one Liberal, and one Reform.

bibliography:

C. Roth, Rise of Provincial Jewry (1950), 34ff. add. bibliography: D. Spector, "The Jews of Brighton, 1779–1900," in: jhset 22 (1968–69), 42–52; idem., "Brighton Jewry Reconsidered," in: jhset 30 (1987–88), 91–124; jyb, 2004.

[Cecil Roth /

William D. Rubinstein (2nd ed.)

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Brighton and Hove, city and unitary authority (1991 pop. 134,581) and district, SE England. It was formed by the merger of the boroughs of Brighton and Hove in 1997, and became a city in 2000. The largest and most popular resort in S England, the city also has engineering works and factories that manufacture office machinery, machine tools, electrical apparatus, vacuum cleaners, shoes, and paint. Brighton was a small fishing village before it became a fashionable resort and was patronized, starting in 1783, by the Prince of Wales (later George IV), who had the Royal Pavilion built. Entertainment is provided on the Palace Pier and in the Dome, which was formerly the royal stables; the West Pier was closed in 1975 and partially collapsed in 2002. In addition to the seaside promenade, the Brighton Museum and Art Gallery, an aquarium, a race course, and sports facilities are of interest. The Univ. of Sussex is there.