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Trent (city, Italy)

Trent, Ital. Trento, Latin Tridentum, city (1991 pop. 101,545), capital of Trentino–Alto Adige and of Trent prov., N Italy, on the Adige River and on the road to the Brenner Pass. It is an industrial and tourist center. Manufactures include leather goods, machinery, metals, textiles, printed materials, and food products. Probably founded in the 4th cent. BC, Trent was later the seat of a Lombard duchy (6th cent.) and of a Frankish march (8th cent.). To safeguard their road into Italy the emperors invested (11th cent.) the bishops of Trent with temporal powers over a sizable territory; a succession of prince-bishops ruled, except for a few short intervals, until 1802, when the bishopric was secularized and became a part of Tyrol in Austria. Because Trent had always been Italian in language and culture, there developed a strong movement for union with Italy (see irredentism). Union was achieved in 1919 by the Treaty of Saint-Germain. Among the city's monuments are the Lombard Romanesque cathedral; the Castello del Buon Consiglio (13th–16th cent.), once the episcopal residence, later a political prison, and now the seat of the National Museum; and a bronze statue of Dante Alighieri (1896). The Council of Trent met there in the 16th cent.

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Trent (river, England)

Trent, river, c.170 mi (270 km) long, rising on Biddulph Moor, Staffordshire, W England. It flows generally NE through central England before joining with the Ouse River to form the Humber estuary. The Trent, the third longest river of England, passes through the Potteries district, Burton upon Trent, and Nottingham. Its chief tributary is the River Dove. There is a high tidal bore in the lower course of the Trent. It is navigable for barges to Nottingham; canals connect it with other river systems. Water from the Trent is used as coolant in thermal power plants along its course.

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Trent

Trent River in central England, at 274km (170mi) the country's third-longest. It rises on Biddulph Moor, Staffordshire, and flows se through the Potteries, and then ne across central England to join the River Ouse and form the Humber estuary. Linked by canals to many industrial towns, its major modern use is the provision of water for the cooling of power stations.

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Trent

Trentant, Brabant, Brandt, brant, cant, enceinte, extant, gallant, Kant, levant, pant, pointe, pointes, rant, scant •confidant • commandant • hierophant •Rembrandt • Amirante •gallivant •aren't, aslant, aunt, can't, chant, courante, détente, enchant, entente, grant, implant, Nantes, plant, shan't, slant, supplant, transplant, underplant •plainchant • ashplant • eggplant •house plant • restaurant •debutant, debutante •absent, accent, anent, ascent, assent, augment, bent, cement, cent, circumvent, consent, content, dent, event, extent, ferment, foment, forewent, forwent, frequent, gent, Ghent, Gwent, lament, leant, lent, meant, misrepresent, misspent, outwent, pent, percent, pigment, rent, scent, segment, sent, spent, stent, Stoke-on-Trent, Tashkent, tent, torment, Trent, underspent, underwent, vent, went •orient • comment • portent •malcontent

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Trent

TRENT

TRENT, city in northern Italy. The presence of some Jews in Trent, most of them emigrants from Germany, is mentioned from the first half of the 14th century. The usury regulations of the Jews of Trent served as a model elsewhere in the Tyrol. In the 15th century Jews in Trent possessed a synagogue, a house for study, and three other houses. The Jewish physician Tobiah practiced among the Christian as well as the Jewish population. In 1475, the fanatical Franciscan, Bernardino da *Feltre, preached there against the Jews in his Lenten sermons, and foretold that their sins would soon be manifested to all.

A few days after this, on Maundy Thursday, a Christian infant named Simon disappeared. Shortly afterward his body was discovered near the house of the head of the Jewish community, and the whole community, men, women, and children were arrested. After 17 of them had been tortured for 15 consecutive days they "confessed" to the crimes of which they had been accused. One of the tortured died in prison, six were burnt at the stake, and two (who had converted to Christianity) were strangled. At this stage Pope *Sixtus iv intervened in the affair and the judicial proceedings were temporarily halted. A papal commissary was sent to Trent to investigate the circumstances of the incident, but was forced to leave when the results of his inquiries led him to contradict the findings of the local "trial." Proceedings were reopened in Trent in face of violent opposition from the commissary, and at the end of the year five more Jews were executed (two of them were converted to Christianity before their deaths). A papal court of inquiry in 1476 justified the libel, and in 1478, as a result of its proceedings, Sixtus published the *BullFacit nos pietas endorsing the "legality" of the trial. In the meantime four Jewish women of Trent had accepted the Christian faith and the property of the murdered Jews had been confiscated. Jews were henceforth excluded from Trent, and in the 18th century were still not allowed to pass through the town (see Ḥ.J.D. Azulai, Ma'gal Tov, 10–11).

Simon was beatified. The libel had widespread repercussions and served for intense antisemitic propaganda both inside and outside Italy. According to legend, the rabbis of Italy imposed a ban on Jewish settlement in Trent after 1475: this was formally raised when Simon was de-beatified in 1965.

bibliography:

J.E. Scherer, Die Rechtsverhaeltnisse der Juden in den deutsch-oesterreichischen Laendern (1901), 579–611; G. Divina, Storia del Beato-Simone da Trento, 2 vols. (1902); G. Menestrina, Gli ebrei a Trento (1903); V. Manzini, La superstizione omicida e i sacrifici umani con particolare riguardo alle accuse contro gli ebrei (1930), 106, 218; M. Shulvass, Bi-Ẓevat ha-Dorot (1960), 67–75; W.P. Eckert, in: P. Wilpert (ed.), Judentum im Mittelalter (1966), 283–336; Milano, Biblioteca, index.

[Shlomo Simonsohn]

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