Hanoi Capital of Vietnam and its second largest city, on the River Red. In the 7th century the Chinese ruled Vietnam from Hanoi; it later became capital of the Vietnamese empire. Taken by the French in 1883, the city became the capital of French Indochina (1887–1945). In 1946–54, it was the scene of fierce fighting between the French and the Viet Minh. The US Air Force heavily bombed Hanoi during the Vietnam War. Industries: engineering, vehicles, textiles, rice milling, food processing. Pop. (2002 est.) 1,372,800.
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