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Hannikainen, distinguished family of Finnish musicians:

(1) Pekka (or Pietari) (Juhani) Hannikainen , conductor and composer; b. Nurmes, Dec. 9, 1854; d. Helsinki, Sept. 13, 1924. He was self- taught. He was active as a choral conductor and teacher of choral singing in Helsinki. He wrote a number of choral works and songs that became popular in his native country. His wife, Alii (née Laura Alfhild; b. Helsinki, June 21, 1867; d. there, April 12, 1949), was a teacher of singing and conductor of a women’s choir. Their sons also became prominent musicians:

(2) (Toivo) Ilmari Hannikainen , pianist and composer; b. Jyväskylä, Oct. 19, 1892; d. Kuhmoinen, July 25, 1955. He studied piano and composition at the Helsinki music school (1911–13), then with Schreker in Vienna (1913–14) and Siloti and Steinberg in Petrograd (1916–17). He made his debut in Helsinki in 1914 and later toured with his brothers Tauno (Heikki) and Arvo (Sakari) in a trio. He also taught piano at his alma mater and then at the Sibelius Academy (1939–55). He wrote a folk play, Talkoottanssit (1930), a Piano Concerto, a Piano Quartet, and many pieces for solo piano.

(3) Tauno (Heikki) Hannikainen , cellist and conductor; b. Jyväskylä, Feb. 26, 1896; d. Helsinki, Oct. 12, 1968. He studied cello with O. Forström in Helsinki, making his debut there as a soloist in 1920. He then took lessons with Casals in Paris (1921). After making his conducting debut in 1921, he served as conductor of the Finnish Opera in Helsinki until 1927. He also played in a trio with his brothers (Toivo) Ilmari and Arvo (Sakari). He was conductor of the Turku Sym. Orch. (1929–39), then went to the U.S., where he was music director of the Duluth (Minn.) Sym. Orch. (1942–46). Subsequently he was conductor of the Chicago Civic Orch. (1947–50), as well as asst. conductor (1947–49) and assoc. conductor (1949–50) of the Chicago Sym. Orch. From 1950 to 1963 he was conductor of the Helsinki Phil.

(4) Arvo (Sakari) Hannikainen , violinist and conductor; b. Jyväskylä, Oct. 11, 1897; d. Helsinki, Jan. 8, 1942. He studied violin in Helsinki (1915–17), in Berlin and Weimar (1920–23), with Thibaud and Ysaÿe in Paris, and with Jacobsen in Berlin (1931). In 1917 he became a member of the Helsinki orch., then 1st violinist in 1923. He also played in a trio with his brothers (Toivo) Ilmari and Tauno (Heikki). He taught at the Sibelius Academy, and was conductor of its student orch.

(5) Väinö (Aatos) Hannikainen , harpist and composer; b. Jyväskylä, Jan. 12, 1900; d. Kuhmoinen, Aug. 7, 1960. He studied in Helsinki and Berlin. He was 1st harpist in the Helsinki orch. (1923–57). He wrote several symphonic poems, a Harp Concerto, a Harp Sonata, and songs.

—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire