FEZ , city in *Morocco, one of the most important in the Islamic world; founded by Idrīs i in 789, it became the capital of the kingdom in 808 under Idrīs ii. The first inhabitants of Fez were pagan Berber\s, but it also included Christians and Jews. Idrīs ii then admitted a large number of Jews who paid him an annual tax of 30,000 dinars. He assigned them a quarter, the al-Funduk al-Yahūdī. This community rapidly became influential and respected. Thus, when the ruler Yaḥyā – as it is told – became infatuated with a Jewess and forced his way into the public baths where she was at the time, there was an uprising in the town (c. 860).
A center of civilization, Fez also became a commercial center of prime importance, largely the result of the presence of the Jews, who from there traveled widely. Its position also encouraged a considerable development of the intellectual and religious life of the community: its yeshivot attracted such scholars as Judah *Ibn Quraysh in the 9th century. During the 10th–11th centuries its rabbis maintained a regular correspondence with *Sura and *Pumbedita. To Palestine went scholars such as David b. Abraham *Alfasi, author of a dictionary, R. Solomon b. Judah (d. 1051), who became head of the Jerusalem Academy, and to Spain grammarians of the stature of *Dunash b. Labrat and Judah Hayyūj. R. Isaac *Alfasi's (c. 1015–1105) most extended period of teaching was in Fez, where he wrote his long summary of the Talmud and answered queries on halakhah addressed to him from all over the world. Only in his old age did he arrive in Spain. During this golden era, which lasted several centuries, three grave events occurred: a section of the community was deported to Ashir (*Algeria) in about 987; 6,000 Jews were massacred in May 1035 by a fanatic who conquered Fez; and the town was ruthlessly sacked in 1068 by the *Almoravides. In about 1127 a pseudo-messiah, Moses Dari, brought some afflictions upon the community. In 1165 the official recognition of a new *Almohad monarch resulted in severe changes which went as far as forced conversion. Refusing to submit to this, the dayyan R. Judah ha-Kohen ibn Shushan was burnt alive and *Maimonides and his family, who had been living in Fez as refugees from Spain for five years, permanently left the country for *Egypt. In 1244 the Merinides established themselves in Fez, which once more became the capital of the kingdom. In 1275, there was an insurrection against the Jews, who were particularly well treated by the new masters, and it was the Merinide sultan himself who saved the community. The community lived in freedom and prosperity; its commerce, especially with Aragon, was of considerable importance; learning and science flourished. However, with the decline of the Merinides and the revival of fanaticism, the Jews were compelled in 1438 to live in a special *Jewish quarter situated on the site known as *mellah in New Fez. It was the first Jewish quarter in Morocco. Still, in order to straighten out public finances, Sultan ʿAbd al-Ḥagg turned to the Jews of Fez and one of them, Hārūn, became his prime minister. Subsequently, the town rose in revolt, the sultan and his minister were assassinated, and most of the Jews were massacred (1465). The community did not recover from this catastrophe until after 1492 with the arrival of the Spanish refugees; their numbers included some eminent personalities, but several, such as Jacob *Berab, later left for *Palestine.
One of the first Hebrew presses was set up in Fez, by Samuel b. Isaac Nedivot and his son Isaac who had learned their Hebrew printing in Lisbon. From 1516 (?) to 1524 they printed 15 Hebrew books.
The community, which numbered about 10,000, consisted of "Spanish exiles" (megorashim) and "natives" (toshavim). The former, by issuing takkanot based on Judeo-Spanish custom, became entirely detached from the latter; serious friction broke out between these two elements, but the megorashim finally gained the upper hand. Their descendants instituted the Purim de Los Christianos to commemorate the defeat of the Portuguese at the battle of al-Qaṣr al-Kabīr in 1578; they held the office of *nagid, established in Fez at the beginning of the 16th century, and their yeshivot were headed by scholars including Nahman b. Sunbal (d. after 1556), Samuel Ḥagiz (d. after 1596), Judah Uzziel (d. 1603), and Saul Serrero (d. after 1622). Their high standard was maintained over a lengthy period due to such personalities as Samuel Sarfaty (d. 1713), Judah ibn *Atar, and Ḥayyim ibn *Atar of *Salé. Scholars of the mellah recorded accounts of the events which they had witnessed. These. are valuable for the study of Moroccan history, and provide an insight into the psychology of the Jewish masses of the town living in a closed society.
During the same period many scholarly works were written in the mellah. Rabbis of Fez went to teach in communities abroad and became their spiritual leaders; this was the case, for example, with Isaac b. Abraham Uzziel, Aaron *Ibn Ḥayyim, and Jacob *Ḥagiz. Certain families, such as the Ibn Danāns, were the leading dayyanim of Fez for several generations and their authority was recognized by the Jews of the whole country. The preeminence of Fez only ended after the death of Jacob *Ibn Zur in 1753. Rabbis of Fez found refuge, whenever their communities were struck by a calamity, in the small town of Sefrou, near Fez. During the 18th and 19th centuries, rabbis of the Hota, Abitbol, and Elbaz families attracted many disciples from other parts of Morocco. A short while after its conquest by the Saʿdī Sharīfs (in 1550), Fez lost its political and economic importance. As a result, the Jewish community was deserted by its wealthiest and most influential elements and gradually fell into poverty. To secure Fez, where he was enthroned (in 1665), Moulay Rashīd, the founder of the Alawīte dynasty, entered the town by way of the mellah, where the Jews enabled him to spend the night. Having destroyed the bastion of the power of his enemies, the Zāwiya of Dila, this sultan in 1668 transferred the rich Jewish community of Dila with all its belongings to Fez: these 1,300 families changed the composition of the mellah, which lost its Spanish character and became more prosperous. In the period of anarchy, between 1720 and 1750, a few of them barely managed to obtain monopolies, e.g., over tobacco or the minting of coins; many of them continued to practice such traditional crafts as goldsmithing, the manufacture of gold thread, lace making, embroidery, and tailoring. But the community mostly lived in a state of spiritual and intellectual seclusion. In 1790 Moulay Yazīd destroyed its synagogues, ordered the plunder of the mellah, and expelled its inhabitants. The return of the Jews was authorized in 1792 by Moulay Suleiman, but the mellah was reduced to a quarter of its former size. Moreover, the Udayas stationed in New Fez (Fez al-Jadīd) persecuted the Jews; however, when these soldiers rebelled the sharif did not hesitate to bombard New Fez and the defeated Udayas were dispersed (1832). In commemoration of this deliverance the community instituted the "Purim del Kor" ("of the cannonballs"), celebrated every year on Kislev 22. Life in the mellah improved and the interest in studies was reawakened by such remarkable men as Abner Sarfaty (d. 1884) and Isaac ibn Danān (d. 1900). The community possessed many schools, five yeshivot, and an important benevolent society. A French school, which received the financial support of the notables of the community, was founded in 1884 by the Alliance Israélite Universelle.
In 1912, two weeks after the establishment of the French Protectorate, a revolt broke out in Fez. The mellah with a population of 12,000 was completely ransacked and set on fire by the mob; about 45 were killed and 27 were wounded. Under the pretext of munitions smuggling, the French military authorities had previously confiscated all the weapons of the Jews, who were left defenseless. The Sharīf received them within the precincts of the palace and ordered the distribution of food and clothes among them. From 1925 many Jews established themselves in the new town of Fez, together with the Europeans; it was only the poor and some Orthodox families who remained in the mellah where in 1942 the Vichy laws sought to reintegrate all those who had left it. In 1947 there were 22,484 Jews living in Fez and its surroundings. These included several physicians, lawyers, industrialists, and owners of agricultural estates. The traditional occupations disappeared with modernization, and commerce came under Muslim domination, with the exception of the precious metals and cereals businesses in which the Jews retained the leading role.
The Zionist association Hibbat Zion was created before the establishment of the French protectorate, at the end of 1908. It was the only Zionist association which the famous Rabbi Shaul Ibn Danān headed. The reactions of Jews in Fez and other communities in the region to the Balfour Declaration and the end of the war was mass immigration to Ereẓ Israel, but most of the Jews returned to Fez. We do not know the reasons for the failure of the immigration; however, its impact was very clear: Jews did not emigrate again from the region until the end of World War ii.
After World War i a new Zionist association was created, Kol Mevasser, and Josef Halevy was its head. From 1924 Zionist activity almost ceased because of French opposition and the influence of the *Alliance on Jewish youth. Unofficially, Jews from Fez participated in Zionist conferences which took place at Casablanca. Eight delegates represented Fez in 1936, four in 1937, five in 1938, two in 1939, and seven in 1946. After World War ii all Zionist parties and ideologies were represented in Morocco, including Fez.
Fez was a center of book printing in Morocco. The first printing house was established before 1922, named Imprimerie Allard. Nine printing houses are known in Fez, most of which were active in the 1920s.
[Haim Saadoun (2nd ed.)]
The Jewish population in Fez was about 10,000 in 1912, 14,000 in 1951, and 12,194 in 1961, comprising 7.5% of the Jewish population of Morroco. Most families had no more than six children. Most Jews left Fez in 1961–68. Until the community was dissolved, the town had many Jewish educational institutions run by the Alliance lsraélite Universelle, by Oẓar ha-Torah (which had 700 pupils in 1961), and Em ha-Banim. In 1961 these and other Jewish schools had a total of 2,823 pupils. Before the emigration in the 1950s and 1960s, there were also general Jewish organizations, such as the Zionist Bnei Akiva, a Ḥovevei ha-Safah for the study of Hebrew, several social welfare organizations, branches of wizo, and a branch of the World Jewish Congress. Most of the Jews who left Fez made their way to Israel; others went to France and Canada. In 1969 there were only about 1,000 Jews in Fez.
[Ḥayyim J. Cohen]
R. Le Tourneau, Fès avant le protectorat (1949); G. Vajda, Un recueil de textes historiques judéo-marocains (1951); Hirschberg, Afrikah, index; A. Chouraqui, Between East and West (1968), index; D. Corcos, Les Juifs de Maroc et leur Mellahs (1970), passim; idem, in: jqr, 54 (1963/64), 271–87; 55 (1964/65), 53–81, 137–50; idem, in: Sefunot, 10 (1965), 43–111; Bentov, ibid., 413–82. add. bibliography: A. Elboim, Ha-Edah ha-Yehudit be-Fez (1972) H. Bentov, "Umanim u-Ba'alei Melakhah be-Fez," in: Sefunot, 10 (1965), 413–82; idem, "Kehal ha-Toshavim be-Fez min ha-Me'ah ha-Tet-Zain …," in: Mi-Mizraḥ u-mi-Ma'arav, 5 (1986), 79–108; S. Bar-Asher, Ha-Kehillah ha-Yehudit be-Maroco (1981); idem, Yehudei Sefarad u-Portugal be-Maroco (1492–1753) (1991); A. Mamman, "Fez, Ereẓ Ẓemiḥato shel Meḥkar ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit ba-Magreb," in: Brit, 3 (1988), 14–16; D. Ovadya, Fez va-Ḥakhameha, 1–2 (1979); M. Amar, "Takannot Fez ve-Takkanot Mo'eẓet ha-Rabbanim be-Maroco," in: Sefer ha-Takannot, ha-Mishpat ha-Ivri be-Kehillot Maroco (1980), 9–55; D. Bensimon-Donath, L'évolution de la femme israëilite à fes (1962); L. Brunot and E. Malka, Textes judéo-arabes de Fes; (1939); idem, Glossaire judéo-arabes de Fes (1940); J. Gerber, Jewish Society in Fez 1450–1700 (1980); E. Bashan, "Yehudei Fez 1873–1900 al pi Te'udot Ḥadashot," in: Asufot, 15 (1993), 1–168; J. Tedgui, Ha-Sefer ve-ha-Defus ha-Ivri be-Fez (1994).
The oldest of Morocco's four imperial cities, Fez (Ar., Fas) is situated just above the Sefrou valley, at a natural intersection of the commercial routes connecting the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts with the Atlas mountains and the Sahara. Fez's location and water-rich surrounding helped the city become an important political, religious, and commercial center of the medieval Islamic world.
Founded on the east bank of the Wadi Fez in 789 c.e. by Mulay Idris b. ˓Abdallah, a descendent of the Prophet who had fled from Mecca to Morocco to avoid Abassid persecution, Fez was expanded onto the west bank by his son, Idris b. Idris, in 809. Fez grew under the Idrisi dynasty when waves of immigrants from southern Spain (Andalusia, or Ar., Al-Andalus) and northern Africa quickly inhabited both sides of the city. With the foundation of the Qarawiyyin mosque and university in 859 (believed to have been established by a wealthy woman from the Tunisian city of Kairouan) and the Andalusian mosque in 862, Fez became an Islamic capital of learning that rivaled Al-Azhar University in Cairo.
Alternating Fatimid and Umayyad influence over Fez nourished bitter rivalry between the two parts of the city, which ensued until they were united by the Almoravid dynasty at the end of the eleventh century. Under the Almoravids and the Almohads (who ruled the city from 1145 to 1175) Fez also became an essential military base and was surrounded by a defensive wall pierced by eight huge gates, which are still functioning today. Fez reached the peak of its political and cultural prosperity under the Marinid dynasty, which conquered the city in 1248 and made it the capital of Morocco for almost three centuries. This period saw the construction of numerous prestigious religious colleges in rich Hispano-Moorish style, the finest examples of which are the Al-Saffarin and the Al-˓Attarin madrasas (Islamic colleges). The city became home to the famous Arab traveler Ibn Battuta, who composed the memoirs of his journeys across Asia while living in Fez, where he remained until his death in 1369. Although Fez's political importance waned in the sixteenth century when Marrakesh was preferred as a capital by the Sa˒adi dynasty (1517–1666), it has retained a religious primacy throughout the centuries. The treaty of Fez, which established the French protectorate in Morocco, was signed on 30 March 1912.
In the twentieth century Fez, whose urban population exceeds 510,000 (1994 census), expanded into four distinct areas:
- The old city (locally referred to as Fez al-Bali), which was declared a world heritage site by the UNESCO in 1981, is characterized by rich al-Andalus architecture, narrow dark alleys crossing at irregular patterns, high-walled houses, and traditional markets. It treasures the Qarawiyyin mosque and university, whose present dimensions date back to the 1135 Almoravid enlargement.
- The thirteenth-century Fez al-Jedid (New Fez in Arabic), lying west of the old medina, served as the Marinid administrative center and consists of the Royal Palace with its adjoining Great Mosque, a Muslim neighborhood, and a formerly vibrant Jewish quarter (the Mellah).
- The Ville Nouvelle (the New City in French), built by the French administration in 1916 to accommodate modern colonial lifestyle, lies on the southwest plateau and is largely a residential and industrial area.
- A new town, which has sprung up since Morocco's independence, lies to the northwest.
Fez, which gave its name to the brimless, red felt hat and was its sole producer until the nineteenth century, remains today a center of religious learning, traditional crafts, and tourism.
Burckhardt, Titus. Fez, City of Islam. Cambridge, U.K.: Islamic Texts Society, 1992.
Mezzine, Mohamed, ed. Fès médiévale, entre légende et histoire, un carrefour de l'Orient à l'apogée d'un rêve. Paris: Edition Autrement, 1992.
Le Tourneau, Roger. Fez in the Age of the Marinides. Norman: Oklahoma University Press, 1961.
fez / fez/ • n. (pl. fez·zes ) a flat-topped conical red hat with a black tassel on top, worn by men in some Muslim countries (formerly the Turkish national headdress).DERIVATIVES: fezzed adj.
• Fellow of the Entomological Society
• Fellow of the Ethnological Society
• Fencing foil, épée, and sabre
• F(rederick) E(dwin) Smith, Earl of Birkenhead (1872–1930, British statesman and lawyer)