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Veda (vā´də, vē´də) [Sanskrit,=knowledge, cognate with English wit, from a root meaning know], oldest scriptures of Hinduism and the most ancient religious texts in an Indo-European language. The authority of the Veda as stating the essential truths of Hinduism is still accepted to some extent by all Hindus. The Veda is the literature of the Aryans who invaded NW India c.1500 BC and pertains to the fire sacrifice that constituted their religion. The Vedic hymns were probably first compiled after a period of about 500 years during which the invaders assimilated various native religious ideas. The end of the Vedic period is about 500 BC Tradition ascribes the authorship of the hymns to inspired seer-poets (rishis).

Types of Vedic Literature

Composed according to an advanced poetic technique and complex metrical system, the Veda consists of four types of literature: Samhita,Brahmana,Aranyaka, and Upanishad. Most important are the four Samhitas, which are the basic Vedas. The earliest is the Rig-Veda (rig=stanza of praise), a collection of 1,028 hymns. The Sama-Veda (saman=chant) consists of stanzas taken from the Rig-Veda meant to be sung to fixed melodies. The Yajur-Veda (yajus=sacrificial prayer), compiled a century or two later than the Rig-Veda, contains prose and verse formulas that were to be pronounced by the priest performing the manual part of the sacrifice. These three Vedas were recognized as canonical and called Trayi Vidya [the threefold knowledge]. The Atharva-Veda (atharvan=charm), written at a later period, was included in the canon only after a long struggle. Influenced by popular religion, it included spells and incantations for the practice of magic. Each of these Vedas was taught in different schools, and each school produced commentarial literature. The Brahmanas are prose explanations of the sacrifice, while the Aranyakas, or forest treatises, give instruction for the mental performance of the sacrifice through meditation, thus forming a transition to the Upanishads, works of mysticism and speculation.

The Gods and Vedic Sacrifice

In the Vedic sacrifice a god or gods are invoked by the hymns or mantras. Offerings of food, butter, or soma are prepared and offered to the fire, which as an intermediary god, conveys these to the other gods. The total number of Vedic gods is said to be 33, although more than this number are actually mentioned in the Veda. The three main kinds of gods are celestial, atmospheric, and terrestrial. Their attributes shift, and one god can be identified with another or take on his or her powers.

The most important gods are Agni, the fire god, who plays a central role in the sacrifice, and Indra, the warrior god and thunder god, celebrated for his slaying of the drought demon Vritra. Several solar deities are found, including Surya, Savitri, Pushan, and Vishnu. Varuna is the all-seeing god of justice, guardian of the cosmic order or rita. Soma personifies the plant whose intoxicating juice was offered as an oblation.

With the passage of time the sacrifice became increasingly elaborate, and priests became highly skilled specialists. The conception of the sacrifice's meaning also developed. Correlations were made between parts of the sacrifice and of the cosmos. The sacrifice came to be regarded as the fundamental agency of creation, embodied in brahman, the mystical power of speech in the mantras. Theories of cosmogony and the idea of a single underlying reality found clear expression in philosophical hymns and the later interpretive works.


See M. Bloomfield, The Religion of the Veda (1908, repr. 1973); A. B. Keith, The Religion and Philosophy of the Vedas and Upanishads (1923, repr. 1976); M. Winternitz, History of Indian Literature (3 vol., tr. 1927–33); R. C. Majumdar, The Vedic Age (1951, repr. 1957); E. V. Arnold, The Rigveda (1960, repr. 1972); P. Olivelle, tr., Samnyāsa Upanishads (1992).

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Veda (Skt., ‘knowledge’). The body of sacred knowledge held to be the basis of true belief and practice among Hindus. Through it the knower contacts the divinities, or discovers the universal foundation of things, thereby attaining to his desires and overcoming all that is undesirable. The Veda is śruti, and is thus authoritative, in that it is held to be eternal (sanātana) and of non-human origin (apauruṣeya). In ancient times, it is held, the Veda was ‘heard’ (śruti) or ‘seen’ by priestly seers (ṛṣis), and it is the families descended from these seers who have preserved it through oral transmission. Originally the Veda consisted of two parts: mantras (verses of invocation and praise) and Brāhmaṇas (discussions of the proper use of mantras in ritual settings, and explanation of the mythic background of the verses). Later the Veda was extended to include two further groups: Āraṇyakas and Upaniṣads. The mantra portions were organized into collections (samhitās) associated with particular aspects of the Vedic sacrifice and with particular priests. Of these, three were at first recognized as Veda: the Ṛg Veda, Sāma Veda, and Yajur Veda. Later a fourth was included, the Atharva Veda. To each of these four collections Brāhmaṇas, Āraṇyakas, and Upaniṣads were appended. In addition to these strictly Vedic compositions a number of other texts became associated with the Veda, including the Vedāṅga, the Upavedas, and the ritual sūtras. Finally the sanctity of the Veda was extended by some to include the Itihāsa and the Purāṇas as the ‘fifth veda’.

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Ve·da / ˈvādə; ˈvēdə/ • n. [treated as sing. or pl.] the most ancient Hindu scriptures, written in early Sanskrit and containing hymns, philosophy, and guidance on ritual for the priests of Vedic religion. Believed to have been directly revealed to seers among the early Aryans in India, and preserved by oral tradition, the four chief collections are the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda.

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Veda the most ancient Hindu scriptures, written in early Sanskrit and containing hymns, philosophy, and guidance on ritual for the priests of Vedic religion. Believed to have been directly revealed to seers among the early Aryans in India, and preserved by oral tradition, the four chief collections are the Rig Veda, Sama Veda, Yajur Veda, and Atharva Veda. In its wider sense, the term also includes the Brahmanas and the mystical Aranyakas and Upanishads.

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Veda any of the four ancient sacred books of the Hindus. XVIII. — Skr. veda knowledge, sacred knowledge, sacred book, f. *wid- know (see WIT2).
Hence Vedic pert. to the Vedas; sb. the language of these, an early form of Sanskrit. XIX. — F. védique or G. vedisch.