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Vedāṅga (Skt., ‘the limbs of the Veda’). The group of auxiliary texts in Hinduism developed over many centuries to preserve and explicate the Veda, especially in relation to ritual. They are sometimes considered part of the Veda, but strictly lie outside and are reckoned as smṛti, not śruti. The Vedāṅga are written mostly in sūtra style and are traditionally six in number: śikṣa (phonetics); chandas (metre); vyākaraṇa (grammar); nirukta (etymology); jyotiṣa (astronomy and calendar); kalpa (ceremonial). The additional ‘limbs’ are the Upāṅgas, four in number: purāṇa, nyāya, mīmāṃsā, and dharmaśāstra.