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Samādhi

Samādhi (Skt., ‘putting together’, ‘union’). Enstasis, intense concentration or absorption of consciousness in a variety of higher mental states in Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain yoga, in which distinction between subject and object is eliminated; the eighth ‘limb’ of ‘eight-limbed’ (aṣṭāṅga) or rāja yoga. Samādhi is the consequence of meditation rather than the state of meditation itself.

In Hinduism, samādhi is achieved through yoga in which the yogin's consciousness (citta) is absorbed in the object of meditation and there is no awareness of the physical or material world.

Other Hindu traditions such as Vedānta, Śaivism, Vaiṣṇavism, and Tantrism accept the idea of samādhi as a consequence of yoga practice, while adhering to a diversity of metaphysical systems and practices. Tantrism accepts samādhi as found in classical yoga, but emphasizes the attainment of samādhi and liberation (mokṣa) through Kuṇḍa-linī and mantra yoga.

In Buddhism, samādhi is produced through the practice of that aspect of Buddhist meditation concerned with mind-development (citta-bhāvanā), involving tranquillity (samatha) and the absorptions (jhāna), as distinct from insight-development (vipassanā-bhāvanā). It is therefore used as a synonym for these meditations.

Unlike insight (vipassanā), samādhi can be realized by non-Buddhist as well as Buddhist ascetics, and it is through its practice that supernormal powers (iddhi) are achieved. Samādhi is generally regarded as an indispensable component of Buddhist practice and forms one of the links of the Eightfold Path (aṣṭangika-marga) as well as part of the three-fold dimension of the Path, together with śīla (morality) and prajñā (wisdom). It is listed as one of the seven factors of enlightenment (bojjhanga), the five spiritual powers (bala), and six perfections (pārāmitas).

In Zen Buddhism, samādhi (Jap., sanmai, zenmai) is the overcoming of a dualistic, subject-object, awareness, through concentration on a single object and experiencing unity with it.

Among Jains, samādhi is a virtual equivalent of dhyāna or bhāvanā, the meditation which seeks to destroy the accumulation of karma in order to release the jīva. It is the interior preparation for, and exercise of, increasingly severe asceticism (tapas).

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samadhi

sa·ma·dhi / səˈmädē/ • n. (pl. -dhis) Hinduism & Buddhism a state of intense concentration achieved through meditation. In Hindu yoga this is regarded as the final stage, at which union with the divine is reached (before or at death). ∎ Indian a funerary monument.

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samadhi

samadhi (səmä´dē), a state of deep absorption in the object of meditation, and the goal of many kinds of yoga. In Buddhism the term refers to any state of one-pointed concentration. In Hinduism it signifies the highest levels of mystical contemplation, in which the individual consciousness becomes identified with the Godhead.

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samadhi

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