Skip to main content

Sam, Jean Vilbrun Guillaume (?–1915)

Sam, Jean Vilbrun Guillaume (?–1915)

Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam (d. 28 July 1915), president of Haiti (March-July 1915). Sam's presidency was marked by mounting chaos and violence that resulted in the occupation of the country by U.S. Marines. While responding to U.S. pressures to arrange a customs receivership similar to the one the Americans had created for the Dominican Republic, Sam spent most of his time fighting his political enemies, who were led by the virulently anti-American Rosalvo Bobo. Sam ordered the execution of 167 prisoners, many of them Bobo's supporters. In retaliation, on 28 July 1915, he was lynched and butchered by a mob in Port-au-Prince. Shortly thereafter, the U.S. Marines occupied Haiti.

See alsoBobo, Rosalvo .


Rayford W. Logan, Haiti and the Dominican Republic (1968).

Lester D. Langley, The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898–1934, rev. ed. (1988).

Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Haiti: State Against Nation (1990).

Additional Bibliography

Heinl, Robert Debs, Nancy Gordon Heinl, and Michael Heinl. Written in Blood: The Story of the Haitian People, 1492–1995. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2005.

Renda, Mary A. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism, 1915–1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

                                        Pamela Murray

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Sam, Jean Vilbrun Guillaume (?–1915)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . 18 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Sam, Jean Vilbrun Guillaume (?–1915)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . (April 18, 2019).

"Sam, Jean Vilbrun Guillaume (?–1915)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved April 18, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.