Sam, Jean Vilbrun Guillaume (?–1915)

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Sam, Jean Vilbrun Guillaume (?–1915)

Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam (d. 28 July 1915), president of Haiti (March-July 1915). Sam's presidency was marked by mounting chaos and violence that resulted in the occupation of the country by U.S. Marines. While responding to U.S. pressures to arrange a customs receivership similar to the one the Americans had created for the Dominican Republic, Sam spent most of his time fighting his political enemies, who were led by the virulently anti-American Rosalvo Bobo. Sam ordered the execution of 167 prisoners, many of them Bobo's supporters. In retaliation, on 28 July 1915, he was lynched and butchered by a mob in Port-au-Prince. Shortly thereafter, the U.S. Marines occupied Haiti.

See alsoBobo, Rosalvo .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Rayford W. Logan, Haiti and the Dominican Republic (1968).

Lester D. Langley, The Banana Wars: United States Intervention in the Caribbean, 1898–1934, rev. ed. (1988).

Michel-Rolph Trouillot, Haiti: State Against Nation (1990).

Additional Bibliography

Heinl, Robert Debs, Nancy Gordon Heinl, and Michael Heinl. Written in Blood: The Story of the Haitian People, 1492–1995. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2005.

Renda, Mary A. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism, 1915–1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

                                        Pamela Murray