Skip to main content

Sam, Tirésias Augustin Simon (1835–1916)

Sam, Tirésias Augustin Simon (1835–1916)

Tirésias Augustin Simon Sam (b. 15 May 1835; d. 1916), president of Haiti (31 March 1896–12 May 1902). Military potentate of his native North, minister of war and marine under the presidency of Lysius Salomon (1879–1888), Sam had strong ties within the then dominant dark-skinned faction of the oligarchy. He offered the Haitian elites the combination of force and compromise they expected. With limited formal training, he used his contacts to bring competence to the service of government. He encouraged the construction of railroads around Cap Haïtien and Port-au-Prince. Financial scandals, factionalism, and the renewed bullying of Haiti by foreign powers, notably Germany, France, and the United States, distracted him from an already loose agenda. Forced out of power when he tried to prolong his constitutional mandate, he predicted an endless civil war: "I am the last president of Haiti." In 1915, his son, Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam, was briefly the president of Haiti from February until his assassination on July 27.

See alsoHaiti .


Brenda G. Plummer, Haiti and the Great Powers, 1902–1915 (1988).

Additional Bibliography

Auguste, Yves L. Haïti et les Etats-Unis: 1862–1900. Port-au-Prince, Haiti: Impr. H. Deschamps, 1987.

Berloquin-Chassany, Pascale. Haïti, une démocratie compromise, 1890–1911. Paris: Harmattan, 2004.

Gaillard, Roger. L'état vassal (1896–1902). Port-au-Prince, Haiti: R. Gaillard, 1988.

Jolibois, Annie Hilaire. Démocrates et démocratie. Port-au-Prince, Haiti: s.n., 1994.

                                Michel-Rolph Trouillot

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Sam, Tirésias Augustin Simon (1835–1916)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . 19 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Sam, Tirésias Augustin Simon (1835–1916)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . (April 19, 2019).

"Sam, Tirésias Augustin Simon (1835–1916)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved April 19, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.