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Robert Alexander Schumann

Robert Alexander Schumann

The music of the German composer and critic Robert Alexander Schumann (1810-1856) made a significant impact on the burgeoning romantic movement in its rhythmic novelty and harmonic and lyrical expressiveness.

Robert Schumann created no intrinsically new forms, but he infused them with a personal subjectivity and emotional intensity that transformed an inherited classical tradition into the quintessence of romantic experience. Much of his music is characterized by literary allusions and autobiographical references, which are "nothing more than delicate directions for performance and understanding" added to the music to indicate the composer's poetic intent. Yet he was not averse to experimenting with the contrapuntal devices of a J. S. Bach or the symphonic structures of a Beethoven. He thus stands midway between the conservatives and ultraprogressives of the 19th century.

Schumann was born at Zwickau on June 8, 1810, the youngest of the five children of Friedrich Schumann, a bookseller and publisher, and Johanna Schumann. Robert spent hours in his father's bookshop and developed a lifelong interest in German literature, especially the works of Jean Paul (Richter), Heinrich Heine, and Joseph von Eichendorff. At 7 Robert went to a private school and studied piano with the local church organist, who introduced him to the works of C. P. E. Bach, Franz Joseph Haydn, and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. By the time Robert was 9, he had begun his first efforts at composition.

During his years in secondary school (1820-1828) Schumann continued to practice the piano, often participating in concerts at the school and in the salons of eminent patrons. By 1825 he had made such progress in improvisation and composition that his father tried to interest Carl Maria von Weber in becoming Robert's teacher, but Weber was on his way to England and nothing came of the attempt. The following year Schumann's sister, Emilie, committed suicide as the result of a mental disorder, and his father, also suffering from a nervous illness, died a few months later.

In 1828 Schumann began to study law at his mother's request at the University of Leipzig. After a short visit to Munich, where he met Heine, Schumann returned to his law studies in earnest. He continued his musical studies with Friedrich Wieck, an eminent piano teacher. At his teacher's home Schumann met Wieck's daughter Clara, already a remarkable pianist at the age of 9. In 1829 Schumann moved to Heidelberg, ostensibly to continue his law studies but essentially to study composition and piano. He frequented the home of the law professor Anton Thibaut, a musical amateur who was instrumental in reviving an interest in the choral music of the Renaissance and the baroque. That summer Schumann went on holiday to Switzerland and Italy and wrote the first part of his Papillons for piano.

A concert by Niccolo Paganini in 1830 in Frankfurt was the decisive factor that turned Schumann permanently to music. After some stormy correspondence with his mother, she finally agreed to let him continue his studies with Wieck. He took up residence in the Wieck home and concentrated on developing into a virtuoso pianist. In his anxiety to make rapid progress he experimented with a sling device to strengthen his fingers; by irrevocably straining his right hand he ruined all chance of becoming a virtuoso. He therefore decided to concentrate on his composition studies and worked with Heinrich Dorn, choirmaster at the Leipzig opera, under whom Schumann completed the second part of the Papillonsand an Allegro for piano. He also embarked on an intensive study of the music of J. S. Bach.

In 1834 the first issue of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (New Journal for Music) appeared. It was the organ of the Davidsbündler, a group of musicians, named for the Old Testament King David, who concentrated their struggle against the musical Philistines of their own day. Schumann edited this reforming journal until 1844, and it became a model for music criticism. In order to observe music from all points of view, Schumann invented three artistic characters: the stormy, impetuous Florestan; the gentle, lyrical Eusebius; and the arbiter between the two, Master Raro. In later years Schumann signed many of his own compositions with these appellations.

Schumann's Twelve Symphonic Études appeared in 1834, and the next year saw the completion of Carnaval and the Piano Sonata, Opus 11. His mother died in 1836. He stayed on in Leipzig with the Wiecks, fell in love with Clara, and, over the strong objections of her father, became engaged to her in 1837. Through the success of his journal, Schumann became an eminent voice in cultural matters and an artistic critic of European rank, more famous for his writings than for his compositions, which most musicians found too difficult to play. Nevertheless, he kept on composing and produced such pianistic masterpieces as the Études symphoniques, the Scenes from Childhood, the Kreisleriana, and the Fantasy. On a visit to Vienna in 1838 to further the aims and influence of his journal, he made the sensational discovery of Franz Schubert's C-Major Symphony, which Mendelssohn eventually performed.

In February 1840 Schumann was honored by a doctorate from the University of Jena. A month later he met Franz Liszt, who played part of Schumann's Carnaval at a recital in Leipzig. Schumann married Clara, against her father's will, in September. Seven children were born of this union.

The ensuing years were a high point in Schumann's compositional activity. During 1840 he wrote a veritable outpouring of songs, including the cycles Myrthen (Myrtles), Frauenliebe und Leben (Women's Love and Life), and Dichterliebe (Poet's Love). The next year he composed his Symphony No. 1, the Spring Symphony and in 1842 he wrote many of his finest pieces of chamber music, including three String Quartets dedicated to Mendelssohn and the Quintet in E-flat for piano and strings. The Piano Concerto in A Minor and the Symphony No. 2 were also well under way.

A crisis of mental exhaustion followed on these productive years. A visit from Hector Berlioz in 1843, however, inspired Schumann to new activity, and he began his Paradise and the Peri for solo voices, chorus, and orchestra. That same year Mendelssohn called him to teach composition at the newly founded Leipzig Conservatory. In 1844, after a reconciliation with Wieck, the Schumanns embarked on a successful concert tour of Russia. On their return to Leipzig, Schumann suffered a serious nervous breakdown which caused him to resign as editor of the Neue Zeitschrift. The Schumanns moved to Dresden in December 1844, where they became acquainted with Richard Wagner, whose stage technique Schumann admired more than his music. In Leipzig, Schumann founded the Society for Choral Singing and taught privately for a living. Here he finished his Piano Concerto in A Minor, which was premiered by Clara in 1846, and the Symphony No. 2. He completed his opera Genoveva early in 1848.

In 1849 Schumann's health improved dramatically, and he composed more than 20 works that year, including the Album for the Young, the incidental music to Lord Byron's Manfred, and a group of short works for various instruments.

In 1850 Schumann became civic music director in Düsseldorf. The Düsseldorf years were not happy ones. Times of great inspiration in composition alternated with profound periods of melancholy and despondency, often lasting weeks or even months. His overall creativity began to lag so that one critic dared to write of him, "Schumann has worked his way down from genius to talent." Nonetheless these years witnessed the completion of the Scenes from Goethe's "Faust," the Waldscenen (Woodland Scenes) for piano, innumerable songs, and Symphony No. 3, the Rhenish.

Wagner had once remarked on Schumann's "strange lack of skill in conducting," and this unsuitability for the conductor's post led to constant bickering with the authorities in Düsseldorf. His choir also began to grow more and more recalcitrant. Eventually Schumann was left to conduct his own works only, and all the other conducting was entrusted to the concertmaster.

In 1853 Schumann's Symphony No. 4 was performed successfully at the Lower Rhine Festival, but his mental condition continued to deteriorate. The only bright spot in his life that year was a visit from Johannes Brahms, whom Schumann greatly admired and in whose behalf he wrote a laudatory article, "New Paths," for the Neue Zeitschrift. There was also a brief concert tour of Holland with his wife and a visit to Hanover, where Joseph Joachim conducted Schumann's Symphony No. 4 and played the Fantasy for violin and orchestra.

Schumann went completely berserk on Feb. 27, 1854, when he threw himself into the Rhine in a suicide attempt. He was rescued by some passing fishermen, and at his own request he was taken to an asylum in Endenich. Clara, aided by their loyal friend Brahms, did all that was possible to bolster Schumann's spirits but to no avail. He died on July 29, 1856.

Further Reading

There is unfortunately no really good work on Schumann in English. Even the monumental German study, Robert Schumann by Wolfgang Boetticher (1941), is marred by Nazi overtones. Very useful are Joan Chissell, Schumann (1948), and Gerald Abraham, ed., Schumann: A Symposium (1952). Percy M. Young, Tragic Muse: The Life and Works of Robert Schumann (1957), is also worth examining. For general historical background Donald Jay Grout, A History of Western Music (1960), is recommended. □

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Schumann, Robert (Alexander)

Schumann, Robert (Alexander) (b Zwickau, 1810; d Endenich, 1856). Ger. composer, pianist, cond., and critic. Studied law at Leipzig and Heidelberg Univs., but main interests were mus. and Romantic literature, e.g. Jean-Paul Richter. In 1828 met Clara Wieck, to whose father Friedrich he went for pf. lessons in 1829, lodging with him and beginning to compose. In 1832 permanently injured hand by device he had invented to keep 4th finger immobile while practising. Was already contributing mus. criticism to Ger. papers and in 1831 called attention to Chopin's genius. Depressed by mus. situation in Ger., founded ‘David Club’ in 1834 to fight artistic philistines, and periodical Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, which he ed. for 10 years. In writings and comps., gave himself dual personality: Florestan for his impetuous self and Eusebius for his contemplative side. In 1838 visited Vienna and discovered MS of Schubert's ‘Great’ C major sym., which he sent to Mendelssohn. Married Clara Wieck 1840 after long opposition from her father, this being followed by outpouring of songs and song-cycles. In 1841 concentrated on syms., in 1842 on chamber mus., and in 1843 choral works. Taught comp. at Leipzig Cons. Toured Russia with Clara, 1844. On return had severe attack of depression. Moved to Dresden in search of quiet, living there until 1850. In 1846 Clara gave f.p. of his pf. conc. and Mendelssohn cond. f.p. of 2nd Sym. In 1850 moved to Düsseldorf in hope of earning more by conducting, but was not a success. Met 20-year-old Brahms in 1853, acclaiming him in article ‘New Paths’. The next year his mental health failed and he threw himself into Rhine, but was saved and taken to private asylum where he lived another 2 years.

Schumann was one of the greatest composers for pf., enriching its literature with a series of poetic works in which classical structure and Romantic expression are combined. His vocal and chamber mus. is of comparable quality, with the freshness, vitality, and lyricism which also characterize the orch. works. His orchestration is sometimes criticized for its thickness and lack of fluency, and various attempts have been made to ‘improve’ the scoring, e.g. by Mahler, but the present-day tendency is to prefer the spontaneity of Schumann's own. His songs, particularly his song-cycles, are among the glories of Lieder. His works contain many musical quotations and allusions and a number of his themes have been shown to be musical cryptograms. Prin. comps.:OPERA: Genoveva, Op.81 (1847–9).INCIDENTAL MUSIC: Manfred, Op.115 (Byron) (1848–9).ORCH.: syms.: No.1 in B♭ (Frühling, Spring), Op.38 (1841), No.2 in C, Op.61 (1845–6), No.3 in E♭ (Rhenish), Op.97 (1850), No.4 in D minor (begun 1841, 2nd in order of comp., rev. 1851), Op.120; Overture, Scherzo, and Finale, Op.52 (1841, rev. 1845); Overture to Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, Op.128 (1851); Overture on Goethe's Hermann and Dorothea, Op.136 (1851).CONCERTOS, etc.: pf. conc. in A minor, Op.54 (1st movt. written as Fantasie 1841, rest added 1845); Konzertstück, 4 hn., in F, Op.86 (1849); Introduction and Allegro appassionato, pf., Op.92 (1849); vc. conc. in A minor, Op.129 (1850); Fantasy in C, vn., Op.131 (1853); Concert-Allegro and Introduction in D minor, pf., Op.134 (1853); vn. conc. in D minor, Op.2 posth. (1853).CHORUS AND ORCH.: Das Paradies und die Peri (Paradise and the Peri), Op.50 (1843); Requiem für Mignon, Op.98b (1849); Nachtlied, Op.108 (1849); Der Rose Pilgerfahrt, Op.112 (1851); Der Königssohn, Op.116 (1851): Des Sängers Fluch, Op.139 (1852); Mass, Op.147 (1852); Requiem, Op.148 (1852); Scenes from Goethe's Faust (1844–53).CHAMBER MUSIC: str. qts.: Op.41, No.1 in A minor, No.2 in F, No.3 in A (1842); pf. qts.: in C minor (1829), in E♭, Op.47 (1842); pf. quintet in E♭, Op.44 (1842); pf. trios: No.1 in D minor, Op.63 (1847), No.2 in F, Op.80 (1847), No.3 in G minor, Op.110 (1851); vn. sonata No.1 in A minor, Op.105 (1851), No.2 in D minor, Op. 121 (1851); Adagio and Allegro in A♭, hn. (or vn. or vc.), pf., Op.70 (1849); Fantasiestücke, cl. (or vn. or vc.), pf., Op.73 (1849); Fantasiestücke, pf., vn., vc., Op.88 (1842); 3 Romanzen, ob. (or vn. or cl.), pf., Op.94 (1849); Märchenbilder, va. (or vn.), pf., Op.113 (1851); 5 Pieces in Folk Style, vc. (or vn.), pf., Op.102 (1849); Märchenerzählungen, pf., cl. (or vn.), va., Op.132 (1853); pf. accs. to 6 vn. sonatas and partitas by J. S. Bach (1854).PIANO: Abegg Theme with Variations, Op.1 (1830); Papillons, Op.2 (1829–31); 12 Concert Studies on Paganini Caprices, Set I, Op.3 (1832), Set II, Op.10 (1833); 6 Intermezzi, Op.4 (1832); Impromptus on a Theme by Clara Wieck, Op.5 (1833, rev. 1850); 18 Davidsbündlertänze, Op.6 (1837, rev. 1850); Toccata in C, Op.7 (1830); Allegro in B minor, Op.8 (1831); Carnaval: Scènes mignonnes sur 4 notes, Op.9 (1834–5); sonatas: No.1 in F♯ minor, Op.11 (1833–5), No.2 in G minor, Op.22 (1833–8), No.3 in F minor, Op.14 (1835, rev. 1853); 8 Fantasiestücke, Op.12 (1837–8); Études symphoniques (Symphonic Studies), Op.13 (1834–7, rev. 1852); Kinderscenen, Op.15 (1838); Kreisleriana, Op.16 (1838, rev. 1850); Fantasy in C, Op.17 (1836); Arabeske in C, Op.18 (1839); Blumenstück in D♭, Op.19 (1839); Humoreske in B♭, Op.20 (1839); 8 Novelletten, Op.21 (1838); 4 Nachtstücke, Op.23 (1839); Faschingsschwank aus Wien, Op.26 (1839); 3 Romanzen, Op.28 (1839); Album für die Jugend, Op.68, Book I containing 18 pieces, Book II, 25 (1848); Waldscenen, Op.82 (1848–9); Bunte Blätter, Op.99 (1852); 3 Fantasiestücke, Op.111 (1851); 3 pf. sonatas ‘fur die Jugend’, Op.118 (1853); Albumblätter, Op.124 (1832–45); 7 Piano Pieces in the form of fugues, Op.126 (1853); 5 Gesänge der Frühe, Op.133 (1853).PIANO DUETS: 6 Impromptus, Op.66 (1848), Ball-Scenen, Op.109 (1851).ORGAN: 6 Fugues on the Name of Bach, Op.60 (1845).PART-SONGS: mixed: 5 Lieder, Op.55 (1846); Romanzen und Balladen, 4 vols., Opp. 67, 75, 145, 146 (1846–9); women's: Romanzen, 2 vols., Opp. 69, 91 (1849); men's: 6 Lieder, Op.33 (1840); 5 Hunting-Songs, with 4 optional hn., Op.137 (1849).SONGS & SONG-CYCLES: Liederkreis (Heine), Op.24 (1840); Myrthen, cycle of 26 songs, Op.25 (1840); Lieder und Gesänge, I, Op.27 (1840), II, Op.51 (1842), III, Op.77 (1840 and 1850), IV, Op.96 (1850); 12 Gedichte, Op.35 (1840); 6 Gedichte, Op.36 (1840); 12 Gedichte aus Liebesfrühling, Op.37 (1840); Liederkreis (Eichendorff), Op.39 (1840); Frauenliebe und -Leben, song-cycle, Op.42 (1840); Romanzen und Balladen, I, Op.45 (1840), II, Op.49 (1840), III, Op.53 (1840), IV, Op.64 (1841 and 1847); Dichterliebe, song-cycle, Op.48 (1840); Liederalbum für die Jugend, Op.79 (1849); 3 Gesänge, Op.83 (1850); 6 Gesänge, Op.89 (1850); 6 Gedichte, Op.90 (1850); 3 Gesänge, Op.95 (1849); 9 Lieder und Gesänge aus Wilhelm Meister, Op.98a (1849); 7 Lieder, Op.104 (1851); 6 Gesänge, Op.107 (1851–2); 4 Husarenlieder, Op.117 (1851); 3 Gedichte, Op.119 (1851); 5 Heitere Gesänge, Op.125 (1851); 5 Lieder und Gesänge, Op.127 (1850–1); Gedichte der Königin Maria Stuart, Op.135, (1852); 4 Gesänge, Op.142 (1852).

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Schumann, Robert Alexander

Robert Alexander Schumann (shōō´män), 1810–56, German composer. Both as a composer and as a highly articulate music critic he was a leader of the romantic movement. He studied theory with Heinrich Dorn and piano with Friedrich Wieck, whose daughter Clara he married. Forced by a hand injury to abandon a career as a pianist, he served as editor of the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik from its inception in 1834 until 1844. In his articles he championed younger composers, particularly Chopin and Brahms. Schumann's brilliant compositions for piano, including Papillons, Die Davidsbündlertänze, Carnaval, Fantasiestücke, Études symphoniques, Kinderszenen, and Kreisleriana, occupied him until 1840, when he began to write songs and orchestral music. In his lieder he set to music lyrics by such poets as Heine, Goethe, Eichendorff, and Kerner, achieving a superb fusion of vocal melody and piano accompaniment. Among his best song cycles are Frauenliebe und -Leben [Woman's Love and Life, on verses by Chamisso] and Dichterliebe [Poet's Love, verses by Heine]. His Spring Symphony (1841), Piano Concerto in A Minor (1846), and Third, or Rhenish, Symphony (1850) are his outstanding orchestral works. They exemplify his infusion of classical forms with intense, personal emotion. His one opera, Genoveva (1847–48), was unsuccessful. After a nervous breakdown, he entered (1854) a sanitarium, where he died two years later.

His wife, Clara Josephine (Wieck) Schumann, 1819–96, was one of the outstanding pianists of her time. After bitter opposition from her father she married Schumann in 1840 and eventually bore him eight children. She made her debut in 1836 and later performed with great success on the Continent, in England, and in Russia. She was noted for the intellectual brilliance and sensitivity of her playing, and was an outstanding interpreter of Schumann's and Brahms's works. Her own compositions were mainly piano pieces and songs. From 1878 to 1892 she taught at the Frankfurt Conservatory.

See his essays, On Music and Musicians (1946); his letters, tr. by M. Herbert (1888, repr. 1970); biographies by J. Chissell (1967), H. Bedford (1933, repr. 1971), J. Worthen (2007), and M. Geck (2012); studies by T. A. Brown (1968), S. Walsh (1972), A. Walker, ed. (1974), and J. W. Finson (1989).

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Schumann, Robert Alexander

Schumann, Robert Alexander (1810–56) German composer and leading figure of Romanticism. Schumann's piano compositions include Kinderszenen (1838), Carnaval (1834–35), and Waldscenen (1848–49). Among his best song cycles is Frauenliebe und Leben (1840). His “Spring” Symphony (1841) and Piano Concerto (1841–45) are among his best-known orchestral works.

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Schumann, Robert (Alexander)

Schumann, Robert (Alexander)

Schumann, Robert (Alexander), great German composer of surpassing imaginative power whose music expressed the deepest spirit of the Romantic era, husband of Clara (Josephine) Schumann (née Wieck ); b. Zwickau, June 8, 1810; d. Endenich, near Bonn, July 29, 1856. He was the fifth and youngest child of a Saxon bookseller, who encouraged his musical inclinations. At about the age of 7, he began taking piano lessons from J.G. Kuntzsch, organist at the Zwickau Marienkirche. In 1828 he enrolled at the Univ. of Leipzig as Studiosus juris, although he gave more attention to philosophical lectures than to law. In Leipzig he became a piano student of Friedrich Wieck, his future father-in-law. In 1829 he went to Heidelberg, where he applied himself seriously to music. In 1830 he returned to Leipzig and lodged in Wieck’s home. He also took a course in composition with Heinrich Dorn. His family life was unhappy; his father died at the age of 53 of a nervous disease not distinctly diagnosed, and his sister Emily at the age of 19, most likely a suicide. Of his 3 brothers, only one reached late middle age. Schumann became absorbed in the Romantic malaise of Weltschmerz; his idols included the writers and poets Jean Paul, Novalis, Kleist, Byron, Lenau, and Hölderin. Schumann wrote plays and poems in the Romantic tradition and at the same time practiced his piano playing in the hope of becoming a virtuoso pianist. He never succeeded in this ambition; ironically, it was to be his beloved bride, Clara (Josephine) Schumann (née Wieck), who would become a famous concert pianist, with Schumann himself often introduced to the public at large as merely her husband. His own piano study was halted when he developed an ailment in the index and middle fingers of his right hand. He tried all the fashionable remedies of the period, allopathy, homeopathy, and electrophysical therapy; in addition, he used a mechanical device to lift the middle finger of his right hand, but it only caused him harm. His damaged fingers exempted him from military service; the medical certificate issued in 1842 stated that the index and middle fingers of his right hand were affected so that he was unable to pull the trigger of a rifle. Schumann had a handsome appearance; he liked the company of young women, and enjoyed beer, wine, and strong cigars; this was in sharp contrast with his inner disquiet. As a youth, he confided to his diary a fear of madness. He had auditory hallucinations which caused insomnia, and he also suffered from acrophobia. When he was 23 years old, he noted sudden onsets of inexpressible angst, momentary loss of consciousness, and difficulty in breathing. He called his sickness a pervasive melancholy, a popular malaise of the time. He thought of killing himself. What maintained his spirits then was his great love for Clara, 9 years his junior; he did not hesitate to confess his psychological perturbations to her. Her father must have surmised the unstable character of Schumann, and resisted any thought of allowing Clara to become engaged to him; the young couple had to go to court to overcome Wieck’s objections, and were finally married on Sept. 12, 1840, the day before Clara turned 21. In 1843, when Schumann and Clara already had 2 daughters, Wieck approached him with an offer of reconciliation. Schumann gladly accepted the offer, but the relationship remained only formal.

Whatever inner torment disturbed Schumann’s mind, it did not affect the flowering of his genius as a composer. As a young man he wrote music full of natural beauty, harmonious and melodious in its flow. His very first opus number was a set of variations on the notes A, B, E, G, G, which spelled the name of Countess Meta von Abegg, to whom he was also poetically attached. And, incidentally, it was Ernestine’s adoptive father, an amateur flutist, who gave him the theme for his remarkable set of variations for Piano titled Etudes symphoniques.

As Schumann’s talent for music grew and he became recognized as an important composer, he continued his literary activities. In 1834 he founded, with J. Knorr, L. Schunke, and Wieck, a progressive journal, the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, in which he militated against the vapid mannerisms of fashionable salon music and other aspects of musical stagnation. He wrote essays, signing them with the imaginary names of Florestan, Eusebius, or Meister Raro. (Eusebius was the name of 3 Christian saints; etymologically, it is a compound of the Greek components eu, “good,” and sebiai, “to worship.” Florestan is obviously “one in a state of flowering”; Raw is “rare”; he also noticed that the juxtaposition of the names Clara and Robert would result in the formation of Raro: ClaRARObert.) As early as 1831, Schumann, in the guise of Eusebius, hailed the genius of Chopin in an article in the Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung; it was signed only by his initials, and in an editorial note, he was identified merely as a young student of Prof. Wieck; but the winged phrase became a favorite quotation of biographers of both Chopin and Schumann, cited as Schumann’s discovery of Chopin’s talent. Actually, Chopin was a few months older than Schumann, and had already started on a brilliant concert career, while Schumann was an unknown. One of the most fanciful inventions of Schumann was the formation of an intimate company of friends, which he named Davidsbündler to describe the sodality of David, dedicated to the mortal struggle against Philistines in art and to the passionate support of all that was new and imaginative. He immortalized this society in his brilliant piano work Davidsbündlertänze. Another characteristically Romantic trait was Schumann’s attachment to nocturnal moods, nature scenes, and fantasies; the titles of his piano pieces are typical: Nachtstücke, Waldszenen, and Fantasiestücke, the last including the poetic Warum? and the explosive Aufschwung. A child at heart himself, he created in his piano set of exquisite miniatures, Kinderszenen, a marvelous musical masterpiece which included the beautifully sentimental dream piece Traumerei. Parallel with his piano works, Schumann produced some of his finest lieder, including the song cycles to poems by Heine (op.24) and Eichendorff (op.39), Die Frauenliebe und Leben (op.42), and Dichterliebe, to Heine’s words (op.48). In 1841, in only 4 days, he sketched out his First Sym., in B-flat major, born, as he himself said, in a single “fiery hour.” He named it the Spring sym. It was followed in rapid succession by 3 string quartets (op.41), the Piano Quintet (op.44), and the Piano Quartet (op.47). To the same period belongs also his impassioned Das Paradies und die Peri for Soloists, Chorus, and Orch. Three more syms. followed the Spring sym. within the next decade, and also a Piano Concerto, a masterpiece of a coalition between the percussive gaiety of the solo part and songful paragraphs in the orch.; an arresting hocketus occurs in the finale, in which duple meters come into a striking conflict with the triple rhythm of the solo part.

In 1843 Schumann was asked by Mendelssohn to join him as a teacher of piano, composition, and score reading at the newly founded Cons. in Leipzig. In 1844 he and Clara undertook a concert tour to Russia. In the autumn of 1844 they moved to Dresden, remaining there until 1850. To this period belong his great C major Sym. (1846), the Piano Trio (1847), and the opera Genoveva (1848). In 1847 he assumed the conducting post of the Liedertafel, and in 1848 organized the Chorgesang-Verein in Dresden. In 1850 he became municipal music director in Düsseldorf, but his disturbed condition manifested itself in such alarming ways that he had to resign the post in 1853, though he continued to compose. In the latter year, Schumann completed his expansive setting of Szenen aus Goethes Faust for Soloists, Chorus, and Orch. In 1853 he also completed a Violin Concerto. Joachim, in whose care Schumann left the work, thought it was not worthy of his genius, and ruled that it should not be performed until the centennial of Schumann’s death. The concerto was first performed in Berlin on Nov. 26, 1937.

Schumann’s condition continued to deteriorate. On Feb. 27, 1854, he threw himself into the Rhine, but was rescued. On March 4, 1854, he was placed, at his own request, in a sanatorium at Endenich, near Bonn, remaining there until the end of his life. Strangely, he did not want to see Clara, and there were months when he did not even inquire about her and the children. But Brahms was a welcome visitor, and Schumann enjoyed his company durine his not infrequent periods of lucidity. According to Schumann’s own account during his confinement in Endenich in 1855, he contracted syphilis in 1831 and was treated with arsenic. See F. Franken, “Robert Schumann in der Irrenanstalt Endenich,” Robert Schumanns letzte Lebensjahre: Protokoll einer Krankheit, Archiv Blätter 1 (Berlin, March 1994).

As both man and musician, Schumann is recognized as the quintessential artist of the Romantic era in German music. He was a master of lyric expression and dramatic power, perhaps best revealed in his outstanding piano music and songs. His syms., by turns compelling and poetic, have acquired repertoire status, as have several of his chamber works. Only his large dramatic vocal scores, still largely neglected, remain to be discovered via recordings to reveal the full genius of Schumann’s creative vision.

Works

DRAMATIC: Der Corsar, opera (1844; unfinished; only a chorus and sketch for an air completed); Genoveva, opera, op.81 (1847–49; Leipzig, June 25, 1850); Manfred, incidental music to Byron’s play, op.115 (1848–49; Leipzig, June 13, 1852). ORCH .: Piano Concerto in E-flat major (1828; unfinished); Piano Concerto in F major (1829–31; unfinished); Introduction and Variations on a Theme of Paganini (1831); Sym. in G minor (1832–33; first movement perf. Zwickau, Nov. 18, 1832; first complete perf., Schneeberg, Feb. 12, 1833; 3 movements only with a sketch for a fourth movement); Piano Concerto in D minor (1839; one movement only); Sym. in C minor (1840–41; sketches for 4 movements; some of the music used in Sym. No. 2, in C major, op.61); Sym. No. 1, in B-flat major, op.38, Spring (Leipzig, March 31, 1841); Ouvertüre, Scherzo, und Finale in E major, op.52 (Leipzig, Dec. 6, 1841; rev. 1845); Piano Concerto in A minor, op.54 (first movement composed as the Fantasie for Piano and Orch., 1841; movements 2–3, 1845; Leipzig, Jan. 1, 1846); Sym. No. 2, in C major, op.61 (1845–46; Leipzig, Nov. 5, 1846); Conzertstück in F major for 4 Horns and Orch., op.86 (1849; Leipzig, Feb. 25, 1850); Introduction and Allegro Appassionato, Conzertstück, op.92 (1849; Leipzig, Feb. 14, 1850); Sym. No. 3, in E- flat major, op.97, Rhenish (1850; Düsseldorf, Feb. 6, 1851); Die Braut von Messina, overture in C minor, to Schiller’s play, op.100 (1850–51; Düsseldorf, March 13, 1851); Sym. No. 4, in D minor, op.120 (originally Sym. No. 2; Leipzig, Dec. 6, 1841; rev. as Sym. No. 4, 1851; Düsseldorf, Dec. 30, 1852); Julius Cäsar, overture in F minor, to Shakespeare’s play, op.128 (1851; Düsseldorf, Aug. 3, 1852); Cello Concerto in A minor, op.129 (1850; Leipzig, June 9, 1860); Fantasie in C major for Violin and Orch., op.131 (1853; Hannover, Jan. 1854); Introduction and Allegro in D minor/D major for Piano and Orch., op.134 (Utrecht, Nov. 26, 1853); Hermann und Dorothea, overture in B minor, to Goethe’s poem, op.136 (1851); Violin Concerto in D minor (1853; Berlin, Nov. 26, 1937). CHAMBER : Quartet in C minor for Violin, Viola, Cello, and Piano (1828–30); Quartet in F minor (1829); Quartet in B major for Violin, Viola, Cello, and Piano (1831–32; unfinished); Quartet (1838; not extant); sketches for 2 string quartets: D major and E-flat major (1839); 3 string quartets, op.41: A minor, F major, A major (1842); Quintet in E-flat major for 2 Violins, Viola, Cello, and Piano, op.44 (1842); Quartet in E-flat major for Violin, Viola, Cello, and Piano, op.47 (1842); Andante and Variations for 2 Pianos, 2 Cellos, and Horn (1843; original version of op.46); Trio No. 1, in D minor, for Violin, Cello, and Piano, op.63 (1847); Adagio and Allegro for Horn and Piano, with Violin or Cello ad libitum, in A-flat major, op.70 (1849); Phantasiestücke for Clarinet and Piano, with Violin or Cello ad libitum, op.73 (1849); Trio No. 2, in F major, for Violin, Cello, and Piano, op.80 (1847); Phantasiestücke for Violin, Cello, and Piano, op.88 (1842); 3 Romanzen for Oboe and Piano, with Violin or Clarinet ad libitum, op.94 (1849); 5 Stücke im Volkston for Cello and Piano, with Violin ad libitum, op.102 (1849); Sonata No. 1, in A minor, for Violin and Piano, op.105 (1851); Trio No. 3, in G minor, for Violin, Cello, and Piano, op.110 (1851); Märchenbilder for Viola and Piano, with Violin ad libitum, op.U3 (1851); Sonata No. 2, in D minor, for Violin and Piano, op.121 (1851); Märchenerzählungen for Clarinet, Viola, and Piano, with Violin ad libitum, op.132 (1853); Sonata for Violin and Piano, F. A. E.[based on the thematic motto of Joachim, Frei aber einsam] (1853; second and fourth movements by Schumann; first movement by Dietrich; third movement by Brahms); Sonata No. 3, in A minor, for Violin and Piano (1853; incorporates Schumann’s 2 movements composed for the F. A. E. sonata); 5 Romanzen for Cello and Piano (1853; not extant). Piano : 8 polonaises for Piano, 4-Hands (1828); Variations on a Theme of Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia for Piano, 4-Hands (1828); Romanze in F minor (1829; unfinished); 6 Walzer (1829–30); Thème sur le nom Abegg varié pour le pianoforte, op.l (1829–30); Variations on a Theme of Weber, from Preziosa (1831); Valse in E-flat major (1831; unfinished); Valse per Friedrich Wieck (1831–32; unfinished); Sonata in A-flat major (1831–32; first movement and Adagio); Andante with Variations on an Original Theme in G major (1831–32); Prelude and Fugue (1832); Papillons, op.2 (1829–31); 6 Studien nach Capricen von Paganini, op.3, I (1832; formerly op.2); 6 Intermezzos, op.4 (1832; formerly known as Pièces phantastiques, op.3); Phantasie satyrique (1832; fragments only); Fandango in F-sharp minor (1832); Exercice fantastique (1832; formerly op.5; not extant); Rondo in B-flat major (1832; unfinished); 22 Burlesken (1832); Fugue in D minor (1832); Fugue No. 3 (1832); 5 pieces (1832–33; 1, 4, and 5 unfinished); Sehnsuchts-walzer Variationen: Scènes musicales sur un thème connu (1832–33); 10 Impromptus über ein Thema von Clara Wieck, op.5 (1833); Etüden in Form freier Variationen über ein Beethoven-sches Thema (1833); Variations sur un nocturne de Chopin (1834); movement for a Sonata, in B-flat major (1836); Sonata No. 4, in F minor (1836–37; unfinished); Davidsbündlertänze, 18 character pieces, op.6 (1837); Toccata in C major, op.7 (1829–32; formerly op.6); Allegro in B minor, op.8 (1831); Carnaval: Scènes mignonnes sur quatre notes, op.9 (1833–35); 6 Konzert-Etüden nach Capricen von Paganini, op.10, II (1833); Sonata No. 1, in F-sharp minor, op.ll (1832–35); Phantasiestücke, op.12 (1832?–37); Symphonische Etüden, op.13 (1834–37); Concert sans orchestre, in F minor, op.14 (1835–36; rev. as Sonata No. 3, 1853); Scherzo (1836; from op.14); Kinderszenen, op.15 (1838); Kreisleriana, op.16 (1838; rev. 1850); Phantasie in C major, op.17 (1836–38); Arabeske in C major, op.18 (1838); Blumenstück in D-flat major, op.19 (1839); Humoreske in B-flat major, op.20 (1838); 8 Novelletten, op.21 (1838); Sonata No. 2, in G minor, op.22 (1833–38; new finale, 1838); Nachtstücke, 4 pieces, op.23 (1839); Allegro in C minor (1839; not extant); Faschingsschwank aus Wien: Phantasiebilder, op.26 (1839–40); 3 Romanzen, op.28: B-flat minor, F-sharp major, B major (1839); Klavierstücke, op.32 (1838–39); Sonatina in B-flat major (1840; not extant); Andante and Variations in B- flat major, op.46, for 2 Pianos (1843); Studien für den Pedal-Flügel, op.56 (1845); 4 Skizzen für den Pedal-Flügel, op.58 (1845); 6 Fugues on B-A-C-H, op.60, for Pedal Piano or Organ (1845); Bilder aus Osten: 6 Impromptus, op.66, for Piano, 4-Hands (1848); Album für die Jugend, op.68 (1848); 4 Fugues, op.72: D minor, D minor, F minor, F major (1845); 4 Marches, op.76: E-flat major, G minor, B-flat major (Lager-Scene), E-flat major (1849); Waldszenen, op.82 (1848–49); 12 vierhändige Klavierstücke für kleine und grosse Kinder, op.85 (1849); Bunte Blätter, op.99 (1838–49); Ballszenen, op.109, for Piano, 4-Hands (1851); Phantasiestücke, 3 pieces, op.lll: C minor, A-flat major, C minor (1851); 3 Clavier-Sonaten für die Jugend, op.118: G major, D major, C major (1853); Albumblätter, op.124 (1854); 7 Klavierstücke in Fughettenform, op.126 (1853); Kinderball, op.130, for Piano, 4- Hands (1853); 5 Gesänge der Frühe, op.133 (1853); Canon on F. Himmel’s An Alexis send ich dich, in A-flat major (1854); Thema in E-flat major (1854); Variations on an Original Theme (1854). vocal: Various Voices : Psalm CL for Soprano, Alto, Piano, and Orch. (1822); Overture and chorus (Chor von Landleuten), with Orch. (1822); 6 Lieder for Men’s Voices, op.33 (1840): 1, Der träumende See (Mosen); 2, Die Minnesänger (Heine); 3, Die Lotosblume (Heine); 4, Der Zecher als Doktrinär (Mosen); 5, Rastlose Liebe (Goethe); 6, Frühlingsglocken (Reinick); Tragödie for Chorus and Orch. (Heine; 1841); Das Paradies und die Peri for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch., op.50 (adaptation of Moore’s Lalla Rookh; Leipzig, Dec. 4, 1843); Szenen aus Goethes Faust for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch. (Goethe; 1844–53; Cologne, Jan. 13, 1862); 5 Lieder for Mixed Voices, op.55 (R. Burns; 1846): 1, Das Hochlandmädchen; 2, Zahnweh; 3, Mich zieht es nach dem Dörfchen hin; 4, Die alte, gute Zeit; 5, Hochlandbursch; 4 Gesänge for Mixed Voices, op.59 (1846): 1, Nord oder Süd! (K. Lappe); 2, Am Bodensee (Platen); 3, Jägerlied (Mörike); 4, Gute Nacht (Rückert); also a fifth song added later, Hirtenknaben-Gesang (Droste-Hulshoff); 3 Gesänge for Men’s Voices, op.62 (1847): 1, Der Eidgenossen Nachtwache (Eichendorff); 2, Freiheitslied (Rückert); 3, Schlachtgesang (Klopstock); Ritornelle in canonischen Weisen for Men’s Voices, op.65 (Rückert; 1847): 1, Die Rose stand im Tau; 2, Lasst Lautenspiel und Becherklang; 3, Blut’ oder Schnee!; 4, Gebt mir zu trinken!; 5, Zürne nicht des Herbstes Wind; 6, In Sommertagen rüste den Schlitten; 7, In Meeres Mitten ist ein offener Laden; 8, Hätte zu einem Traubenkerne; Beim Abschied zu singen for Chorus and Wind Instruments, op.84 (Feuchtersieben; 1847); Zum Anfang for Men’s Voices (Rückert; 1847); 3 Freiheitsgesänge for Men’s Voices, with Wind Instruments ad libitum (1848): 1, Zu den Waffen (Ullrich); 2, Schwarz- Rot-Gold (Freiligrath); 3, Deutscher Freiheitsgesang(Furst); Romanzen und Balladen for Mixed Voices, op.67, 1 (1849): 1, Der König von Thule (Goethe); 2, Schön-Rohtraut (Mörike); 3, Heidenröslein (Goethe); 4, Ungewitter (Chamisso); 5, John Anderson (Burns); Romanzen und Balladen for Mixed Voices, op.75, II (1849): 1, Schnitter Tod (Des Knaben Wunderhorn; Brentano); 2, Im Walde (Eichendorff); 3, Der traurige Jäger (Eichendorff); 4, Der Rekrut (Burns); 5, Vom verwundeten Knaben (Herder’s Volkslieder); Romanzen for Women’s Voices and Piano ad libitum, op.69, I (1849): 1, Tamburinschlägerin (Alvaro de Ameida; Eichendorff, tr.); 2, Waldmädchen (Eichendorff); 3, Klosterfräulein (Kerner); 4, Soldatenbraut (Mörike); 5, Meerfey (Eichendorff); 6, Die Kapelle (Uhland); Romanzen for Women’s Voices and Piano ad libitum, op.91, II (1849): 1, Rosmarien (Des Knaben Wunderhorn); 2, Jäger Wohlgemut (Des Knaben Wunderhorn); 3, Der Wassermann (Kerner); 4, Das verlassene Mägdelein (Mörike); 5, Der Bleicherin Nachtlied (Reinick); 6, In Meeres Mitten (Rückert); Verzweifle nicht im Schmerzenstal, motet for Double Chorus and Organ ad libitum, op.93 (Rückert; 1852; orchestrated 1852); Requiem für Mignon for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch., op.98b (Goethe; 1849; Düsseldorf, Nov. 21, 1850); 5 Gesänge aus H. Laubes Jagdbrevier for Men’s Voices and Piano, 4-Hands, ad libitum, op.137 (Laube; 1849): 1, Zur hohen Jagd; 2, Habet acht!; 3, Jagdmorgen; 4, Frühe; 5, Bei der Flasche; 4 doppelchörige Gesänge for Mixed Voices, op.l41 (1849): 1, An die Sterne (Rückert); 2, Ungewisses Licht (Zedlitz); 3, Zuversicht (Zedlitz); 4, Talismane (Goethe); Romanzen und Balladen for Mixed Voices, op.l45, III (1849–51): 1, Der Schmidt (Uhland); 2, Die Nonne (anonymous); 3, Der Sänger (Uhland); 4, John Anderson(Burns); 5, Romanze vom Gänsebuben (Malsburg); Romanzen und Balladen for Mixed Voices, op.l46, IV (1849–51): 1, Brautgesang (Uhland); 2, Der Bänkelsänger Willie (Burns); 3, Der Traum (Uhland); 4, Sommerlied (Rückert); Das Schifflein, with Flute and Horn (Uhland); Nachtlied for Chorus and Orch., op.108 (Hebbel; 1849; Düsseldorf, March 13, 1851); Der Rose Pilgerfahrt for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch., op.112 (Horn; 1851; Düsseldorf, Feb. 5, 1852); Der Königssohn for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch., op.116 (Uhland; 1851); Des Glockentürmers Töchterlein for Mixed Voices (Rückert; 1851); Fest-Ouvertüre for Tenor, Chorus, and Orch., op.123 (Müller and Claudius; 1852–53; Düsseldorf, May 17, 1853); Des Sängers Fluch for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch., op.139 (Pohl, after Uhland; 1852); Vom Pagen und der Königstochter for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch., op.140 (Geibel; 1852); Das Glück von Edenhall for Solo Voices, Chorus, and Orch., op.143 (Hasenclever, after Uhland; 1853); Bei Schenkung eines Flügels for Mixed Voices and Piano (Schumann; 1853); Neujahrslied for Chorus and Orch., op.144 (Rückert; 1849–50; Düsseldorf, Jan. 11, 1851); Mass for Chorus and Orch., op.147 (1852–53); Requiem for Chorus and Orch., op.148 (1852). Songs : Verwandlung (Schulze; 1827); Lied (Schumann; 1827); Sehnsucht (Schumann; 1827); Die Weinende (Byron; 1827); Erinnerung (Jacobi; 1828); Kurzes Erwachen (Kerner; 1828); Gesanges Erwachen (Kerner; 1828); An Anna, I (Kerner; 1828); An Anna, II (Kerner; 1828); Im Herbste (Kerner; 1828); Hirtenknabe (Schumann; 1828); Der Fischer (Goethe; 1828); Klage (Jacobi; 1828; not extant); Vom Reitersmann (date unknown); Maultreiberlied (1838; not extant); Ein Gedanke (Ferrand; 1840); Patriotisches Lied for Voice, Chorus, and Piano (N. Becker; 1840); Der Reiter und der Bodensee (Schwab; 1840; fragment only); Die nächtliche Heerschau (Zedlitz; 1840; fragment only); Liederkreis, op.24 (Heine; 1840): 1, Morgens steh ich auf und frage; 2, Es treibt mich hin; 3, Ich wandelte unter den Bäumen; 4 , Lieb Liebchen; 5, Schöne Wiege meiner Leiden; 6, Warte, warte, wilder Schiffmann; 7, Berg und Burgen schaun herunter; 8, Anfangs wolit ich fast verzagen; 9, Mit Myrten und Rosen; Myrthen, op.25 (1840): 1, Widmung (Rückert); 2, Freisinn (Goethe); 3, Der Nussbaum (Mosen); 4, Jemand (Burns); 5, Lieder aus dem Schenkenbuch im Divan, I (Goethe); 6, Lieder aus dem Schenkenbuch im Divan, II (Goethe); 7, Die Lotosblume (Heine); 8, Talismane (Goethe); 9, Lied der Suleika (Goethe; attributed to Marianne von Willemer); 10, Die Hochländer- Witwe (Burns); 11, Lieder der Braut aus dem Liebesfrühling, I (Rückert); 12, Lieder der Braut aus dem Liebesfrühling, II (Rückert); 13, Hochländers Abschied (Burns); 14, Hochländisches Wiegenlied (Burns); 15, Aus den hebräischen Gesängen (Byron); 16, Rätsel (C. Fanshawe); 17, 2 Venetianische Lieder, I (Moore); 18, 2 Venetianische Lieder, II (Moore); 19, Hauptmanns Weib (Burns); 20, Weit, weit (Burns); 21, Was will die einsame Träne? (Heine); 22, Niemand (Burns); 23, Im Westen (Burns); 24, Du bist wie eine Blume (Heine); 25, Aus den östlichen Rosen (Rückert); 26, Zum Schluss (Rückert); Lieder und Gesänge, op.27, 1 (1840): 1, Sag an, o lieber Vogel (Hebbel); 2, Dem roten Röslein (Burns); 3, Was soll ich sagen? (Chamisso); 4, Jasminenstrauch (Rückert); 5, Nur ein lächelnder Blick (G.W. Zimmermann); 3 Gedichte, op.29 (Geibel; 1840): 1, Ländliches Lied for 2 Sopranos; 2, Lied for 3 Sopranos; 3, Zigeunerleben for Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass, and Triangle and Tambourine ad libitum; 3 Gedichte, op.30 (Geibel; 1840): 1, Der Knabe mit dem Wunderhorn; 2, Der Page; 3, Der Hidalgo; 3 Gesänge, op.31 (1840): 1, Die Löwenbraut (Chamisso); 2, Die Kartenlegerin (Chamisso, after Béranger); 3, Die rote Hanne, with Chorus ad libitum (Chamisso, after Béranger); 4 Duette for Soprano and Tenor, op.34 (1840): 1, Liebesgarten (Reinick); 2, Liebhabers Ständchen (Burns); 3, Unterm Fenster (Burns); 4, Familien-Gemälde (A. Grün); 12 Gedichte, op.35 (Kerner; 1840): 1, Lust der Sturmnacht; 2, Stirb, Lieb und Freud!; 3, Wanderlied; 4, Erstes Grün; 5, Sehnsuchtnach der Waldgegend; 6, Auf das Trinkglas eines verstorbenen Freundes; 7, Wanderung; 8, Stille Liebe; 9, Frage; 10, Stille Tränen; 11, Wer machte dich so krank?; 12, Alte Laute; 6 Gedichte, op.36 (Reinick; 1840): 1, Sonntags am Rhein; 2, Ständchen; 3, Nichts schöneres; 4, An den Sonnenschein; 5, Dichters Genesung; 6, Liebesbotschaft; 32 Gedichte aus “Liebesfrühling,”; op.37 (Rückert; 1840; Nos. 2, 4, and 11 by Clara Schumann): 1, Der Himmel hat ein’ Träne geweint; 3, O ihr Herren; 5, Ich hab in mich gesogen; 6, Liebste, was kann denn uns scheiden? for Soprano and Tenor; 7, Schön ist das Fest des Lenzes for Soprano and Tenor; 8, Flügel! Flügel! um zufliegen; 9, Rose, Meer und Sonne; 10, O Sonn, o Meer, o Rose; 12, So wahr die Sonne scheinet for Soprano and Tenor; Liederkreis, op.39 (Eichendorff; 1840): 1, In der Fremde; 2, Intermezzo; 3, Waldesgespräch; 4, Die Stille; 5, Mondnacht; 6, Schöne Fremde; 7, Auf einer Burg; 8, In der Fremde; 9, Wehmut; 10, Zwielicht; 11, ta Walde; 12, Frühlingsnacht; 5 Lieder, op.40 (1840): 1, Märzveilchen (H.C. Andersen); 2, Muttertraum (Andersen); 3, Der Soldat (Andersen); 4, Der Spielmann (Andersen); 5, Verratene Liebe (Chamisso); Frauenliebe und -leben, op.42 (Chamisso; 1840): 1, Seit ich ihn gesehen; 2, Er, der Herrlichste von allen; 3, Ich kann’s nicht fassen, nicht glauben; 4, Du Ring an meinem Finger; 5, Helft mir, ihr Schwestern; 6, Süsser Freund, du blickest; 7, An meinem Herzen, an meiner Brust; 8, Nun hast du mir den ersten Schmerz getan; 3 zweistimmige Lieder, op.43 (1840): 1, Wenn ich ein Vöglein war (Das Knaben Wunderhorn); 2, Herbstlied (S.A. Mahlmann); 3, Schön Blümelein (Reinick); Romanzen und Balladen, op.45, I (1840): 1, Der Schatzgräber (Eichendorff); 2, Frühlingsfahrt (Eichendorff); 3, Abends am Strand (Heine); Dichterliebe, op.48 (Heine; 1840): 1, Im wunderschönen Monat Mai; 2, Aus meinen Tränen spriessen; 3, Die Rose, die Lilie, die Taube, die Sonne; 4, Wenn ich in deine Augen seh; 5, Ich will meine Seele tauchen; 6, Im Rhein, im heiligen Strome; 7, Ich grolle nicht; 8, Und wüssten’s die Blumen, die kleinen; 9, Das ist ein Flöten und Geigen; 10, Hör’ ich das Liedchen klingen; 11, Ein Jüngling liebt ein Mädchen; 12, Am leuchtenden Sommermorgen; 13, Ich hab’ im Traum geweinet; 14, Allnächtlich im Traume; 15, Aus alten Märchen; 16, Die alten, bösen Lieder; Romanzen und Balladen, op.49, II (1840): 1, Die beiden Grenadiere (Heine); 2, Die feindlichen Brüder (Heine); 3, Die Nonne (A. Fröhlich); Lieder und Gesänge, op.51, II: 1, Sehnsucht (Geibel; 1840); 2, Volksliedchen (Rückert; 1840); 3, Ich wandre nicht (C. Christern; 1840); 4, Auf dem Rhein (K. Immermann; 1846); 5, Liebeslied (Goethe; 1850); Romanzen und Balladen, op.53, III (1840): 1, Blondels Lied (Seidl); 2, Loreley (W. Lorenz); 3, Der arme Feter (Heine); Belsatzar, op.57 (Heine; 1840); Romanzen und Balladen, op.64, IV: 1, Die Soldatenbraut (Mörike; 1847); 2, Das verlassne Mägdelein (Mörike; 1847); 3, Tragödie (Heine; 1841); Spanisches Liederspiel, op.74 (Geibel, after Spanish poets; 1849): 1, Erste Begegnung for Soprano and Alto; 2, Intermezzo for Tenor and Bass; 3, Liebesgram for Soprano and Alto; 4, In der Nacht for Soprano and Tenor; 5, Es ist verraten for Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass; 6, Melancholie for Soprano; 7, Geständnis for Tenor; 8, Botschaft for Soprano and Alto; 9, Ich bin geliebt for Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass; 10, Der Kontrabandiste for Baritone; Lieder und Gesänge, op.77, III: 1, Der frohe Wandersmann (Eichendorff; 1840); 2, Mein Garten (Hoffmann von Fallersleben; 1850); 3, Geisternähe (Halm; 1850); 4, Stiller Vorwurf (O. Wolff?; 1840); 5, Aufträge (C. L’Egru; 1850); Soldatenlied (Hoffmann von Fallersleben; 1844); Das Schwert (Uhland; 1848); Der weisse Hirsch (Uhland; 1848; sketches only); Die Ammenuhr (Des Knaben Wunderhorn; 1848); 4 Duette for Soprano and Tenor, op.78 (1849): 1, Tanzlied (Rückert); 2, Er und Sie (Kerner); 3, Ich denke dein (Goethe); 4, Wiegenlied (Hebbel); Sommerruh, duet (C. Schad; 1849); Lieder-Album für die Jugend, op.79 (1849): 1, Der Abendstern (Hoffmann von Fallersleben); 2, Schmetterling (von Fallersleben); 3, Frühlingsbotschaft (Hoffmann von Fallersieben); 4, Frühlingsgruss (von Fallersleben); 5, Vom Schlaraffenland (von Fallersleben); 6, Sonntag (von Fallersleben); 7, Zigeunerliedchen (Geibel); 8, Des Knaben Berglied (Uhland); 9, Mailied, duet ad libitum (C. Overbeck); 10, Das Käuzlein (Des Knaben Wunderhorn); 11, Hinaus ins Freie! (von Fallersleben); 12, Der Sandmann (Kletke); 13, Marienwürmchen (Des Knaben Wunderhorn); 14, Die Waise (von Fallersleben); 15, Das Glück, duet (Hebbel); 16, Weihnachtslied (Andersen); 17, Die wandelnde Glocke (Goethe); 18, Frühlingslied, duet ad libitum (von Fallersleben); 19, Frühlings Ankunft (von Fallersleben); 20, Die Schwalben, duet (Des Knaben Wunderhorn); 21, Kinderwacht (anonymous); 22, Des Sennen Abschied (Schiller); 23, Er ist’s (Mörike); Spinnelied, trio ad libitum (anonymous); Des Buben Schützenlied (Schiller); 26, Schneeglöckchen (Rückert); 27, Lied Lynceus des Türmers (Goethe); 28, Mignon (Goethe); 3 Gesänge, op.83 (1850): 1, Resignation (Buddeus); 2, Die Blume der Ergebung (Rückert); 3, Der Einsiedler (Eichendorff); Der Handschuh, op.87 (Schiller; 1850); 6 Gesänge, op.89 (W. von der Neun; 1850): 1, Es stürmet am Abendhimmel; 2, Heimliches Verschwinden; 3, Herbstlied; 4, Abschied vom Walde; 5, Ins Freie; 6, Röselein, Röselein!; 7 Gedichte, op.90 (Lenau; 1850): 1, Lied eines Schmiedes; 2, Meine Rose; 3, Kommen und Scheiden; 4, Die Sennin; 5, Einsamkeit; 6, Der schwere Abend; 7, Requiem; 3 Gesänge, op.95 (Byron; 1849): 1, Die Tochter Jephthas; 2, An den Mond; 3, Dem Helden; Lieder und Gesänge, op.96, IV (1850): 1, Nachtlied (Goethe); 2, Schneeglöckchen (anonymous); 3, Ihre Stimme (Platen); 4, Gesungen! (Neun; Schöpff); 5, Himmel und Erde (Neun; Schöpff); Lieder und Gesänge aus Wilhelm Meister, op.98a (Goethe; 1849): 1, Kennst du das Land; 2, Ballade des Harfners; 3, Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt; 4, Wer nie sein Brot mit Tränen ass; 5, Heiss mich nicht reden; 6, Wer sich der Einsamkeit ergibt; 7, Singet nicht in Trauertonen; 8, An die Türen will ich schleichen; 9, So lasst mich scheinen; Minnespiel, op.101 (Rückert; 1849): 1, Meine Töne still und heiter for Tenor; 2, Liebster, deine Worte stehlen for Soprano; 3, Ich bin dein Baum for Alto and Bass; 4, Mein schöner Stern! for Tenor; 5, Schön ist das Fest des Lenzes for Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass; 6, O Freund, mein Schirm, mein Schutz! for Alto or Soprano; 7, Die tausend Grüsse for Soprano and Tenor; 8, So wahr die Sonne scheinet for Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass; Mädchenlieder for Soprano and Alto or 2 Sopranos, op.103 (Kulmann; 1851): 1, Mailied; 2, Frühlingslied; 3, An die Nachtigall; 4, An den Abendstern; 7 Lieder, op.104 (Kulmann; 1851): 1, Mond, meiner Seele Liebling; 2, Viel Glück zur Reise, Schwalben!; 3, Du nennst mich armes Mädchen; 4, Der Zeisig; 5, Reich mir die Hand, o Wolke; 6, Die letzten Blumen starben; 7, Gekämpft hat meine Barke; Schön Hedwig, declamation, op.106 (Hebbel; 1849); 6 Gesänge, op.107 (1851–52): 1, Herzeleid (Ullrich); 2, Die Fensterscheibe (Ullrich); 3, Der Gärtner (Mörike); 4, Die Spinnerin (Heyse); 5, Im Wald (Müller); 6, Abendlied (Kinkel); 3 Lieder for 3 Women’s Voices, op.ll4 (1853): 1, Nänie (Bech-stein); 2, Triolett (L’Egru); 3, Spruch (Rückert); 4 Husarenlieder for Baritone, op.117 (Lenau; 1851): 1, Der Husar, trami; 2, Der leidige Frieden; 3, Den grünen Zeigern; 4, Da liegt der Feinde gestreckte Schar; 3 Gedichte, op.119 (G. Pfarrius; 1851): 1, Die Hütte; 2, Warnung; 3, Der Bräutigam und die Birke; 2 Balladen, declamations, op.122 (1852–53): 1, Ballade vom Haideknaben (Hebbel); 2, Die Flüchtlinge (Shelley); 5 heitere Gesänge, op.125 (1850–51): 1, Die Meerfee (Buddeus); 2, Husarenabzug (C. Candidus); 3, Jung Volkers Lied (Mörike); 4, Frühlingslied (Braun); 5, Frühlingslust (Heyse); 5 Lieder und Gesänge, op.127: 1, Sängers Trost (Kerner; 1840); 2, Dein Angesicht (Heine; 1840); 3, Es leuchtet meine Liebe (Heine; 1840); 4, Mein altes Ross (Moritz, Graf von Strachwitz; 1850); 5, Schlusslied des Narren (Shakespeare; 1840); Frühlingsgrusse (Lenau; 1851); Gedichte der Königin Maria Stuart, op.135 (1852): 1, Abschied von Frankreich; 2, Nach der Geburt ihres Sohnes; 3, An die Königin Elisabeth; 4, Abschied von der Welt; 5, Gebet; Spanische Liebeslieder, op.138 (Geibel; 1849): 1, Vorspiel for Piano, 4-Hands; 2, Tief im Herzen trag ich Pein for Soprano; 3, O wie lieblich ist das Mädchen for Tenor; 4, Bedeckt mich mit Blumen for Soprano and Alto; 5, Flutenreicher Ebro for Baritone; 6, Intermezzo for Piano, 4-Hands; 7, Weh, wie zornig ist das Mädchen for Tenor; 8, Hoch, hoch sind die Berge for Alto; 9, Blaue Augen hat das Mädchen for Tenor and Bass; 10, Dunkler Lichtglanz for Soprano, Alto, Tenor, and Bass; from Des Sängers Fluch, op.139 (Pohl, after Uhland; 1852): 4, Provenzalisches Lied; 7, Ballade; 4 Gesänge, op.142 (1840): 1, Trost im Gesang (Kerner); 2, Lehn deine Wang (Heine); 3, Mädchen-Schwermut (Bernhard); 4, Mein Wagen rollet langsam (Heine); Mailied, duet (1851); Liedchen von Marie und Papa, duet (Schumann; 1852); Glockentürmers Töchterlein (Rückert); Das Käuzlein (Des Knaben Wunderhorn); Deutscher Blumengarten, duet (Rückert).

Bibliography

collected works, source material: A complete edition of his works, R. S.: Werke, was ed. by Clara Schumann et al. and publ. by Breitkopf & Härtel (34 vols., Leipzig, 1881–93; suppl. ed. by Brahms, 1893). His Gesammelte Schriften über Musik und Musiker is a collection of his articles from the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik (4 vols., Leipzig, 1854; Eng. tr., London, 1877; 5th Ger. ed., rev. by M. Kreisig, 1914). A judicious selection from the complete writings, ed. by H. Simon, was pub1, under the same title as the original edition (3 vols., Leipzig, 1888–89). A selection of Schumann’s critical reviews, tr. into Eng. by P. Rosenfeld, was publ. in N.Y. in 1946. A new critical ed. of his complete works, R. S.: Neue Ausgabe sämmtlicher Werke, ed. by A. Mayeda and K. Niemöller, began publ. in Mainz in 1991. See also H. Drinker, Texts of the Vocal Works of R. S. in English Translation (N.Y., 1947), and L. Minchin, S. in English: Four Famous Song–Cycles in Singable English Verse (London, 1981). A thematic catalogue was prepared by A. Dörffel, Thematisches Verzeichniss sämmtlicher in Druck erschienenen Werke R. S.s (Leipzig, 1860; fourth ed., 1868). See also K. Hofmann, Die Erstdrucke der Werke von R. S.(Tutzing, 1979). Other sources include: F. Kerst, S.-Brevier (Berlin, 1905); A. Schumann, ed., Der junge S.: Dichtungen und Briefe (Leipzig, 1910); W. Boetticher, R. S. in seinen Schriften und Briefen (Berlin, 1942); G. Eismann, R. S.: Ein Quellenwerk über sein Leben und Schaffen (2 vols., Leipzig, 1956); R. Münnich, Aus R. S.s Briefen und Schriften (Weimar, 1956); F. Munte, Verzeichnis des deutschsprachigen Schrifttums über R. S. 1856–1970 (Hamburg, 1972); G. Nauhaus, R. S.: Haushaltbücher (2 vols., Leipzig, 1982). correspondence and diaries: C. Schumann, ed., S.s Jugendbriefe: Nach den Originalen mitgeteilt (Leipzig, 1885; Eng. tr London, 1888; fourth Ger. ed., 1910); F. Jansen, ed., R. S.s Briefe: Neue Folge (Leipzig, 1886; Eng. tr., London, 1890; second Ger. ed., aug., 1904); H. Erler, R. S.s Leben: Aus seinen Briefen geschildert (2 vols., Berlin, 1886–87; third ed., 1927); G. Eismann, ed., R. S.: Tagebücher, Vol. I (1827–38) (Leipzig, 1971); E. Weissweiler, ed., Clara Schumann und R. S.: Briefwechsel: Kritische Gesamtausgabe (Basel, 1984 et seq.); G. Nauhaus, The Marriage Diaries of R. and Clara S.: From Their Wedding Through the Russian Trip (Boston, 1993). biographical: W. von Wasielewski, R. S.(Dresden, 1858; Eng. tr., Boston, 1871; aug. Ger. ed., 1906); A. Reissmann, R. S.: Sein Leben und seine Werke (Berlin, 1865; third ed., 1879; Eng. tr., London, 1886); A. Niggli, R. S. (Basel, 1879); P. Spitta, Ein Lebensbild R. S.s (Leipzig, 1882); W. von Wasielewski, S.iana (Bonn, 1883); J. Fuller Maitland, S. (London, 1884; new ed., 1913); H. Reimann, R. S.s Leben und Werke (Leipzig, 1887); R. Batka, S. (Leipzig, 1893); H. Abert, R. S. (Berlin, 1903; third ed., 1918); A. Paterson, S. (London, 1903; rev. ed., 1934); L. Schneider and M. Mareschal, S.: Sa vie et ses oeuvres (Paris, 1905); C. Mauclair, S. (Paris, 1906); P. Möbius, Über R. S.s Krankheit (Halle, 1906); M.D. Calvocoressi, S. (Paris, 1912); M. Wieck, Aus dem Kreise Wieck-S. (Dresden, 1912; second ed., 1914); W. Dahms, S. (Berlin, 1916); F. Nussbaum, Der Streit um R. S.s Krankheit (diss., Univ. of Cologne, 1923); F. Niecks, R. S.: A Supplementary and Corrective Biography (London, 1925); R. Pitrou, La Vie intérieure de R. S. (Paris, 1925); E. Schumann, Erinnerungen (Stuttgart, 1925; Eng. tr., London, 1927); V. Basch, S. (Paris, 1926); idem, La Vie douloureuse de S. (Paris, 1928; Eng. tr., N.Y., 1931); H. Tessmer, R. S. (Stuttgart, 1930); E. Schumann, R. S.: Ein Lebensbild meines Vaters (Leipzig, 1931); M. Beaufils, S. (Paris, 1932); C. Valabrega, S. (Modena, 1934); W. Gertler, R. S. (Leipzig, 1936); W. Korte, R. S. (Potsdam, 1937); E. Bücken, R. S. (Cologne, 1940); W. Boetticher, R. S.: Einführung in Persönlichkeit und Werk (Berlin, 1941); H. Kleinebreil, Der kranke S.: Untersuchungen über Krankheit und Todesursache (diss., Univ. of Jena, 1943); R. Schauffler, Florestan: The Life and Work of R. S. (N.Y., 1945); J. Chissell, S. (London, 1948; 5th ed., rev., 1989); R. Sutermeister, R. S.: Sein Leben nach Briefen, Tagebüchern und Erinnerungen des Meisters und seiner Gattin (Zürich, 1949); K. Wörner, R. S. (Zürich, 1949); A. Coeuroy, R. S. (Paris, 1950); E. Müller, R. S. (Olten, 1950); M. Brion, S. et l’âme romantique (Paris, 1954; Eng. tr. as S. and the Romantic Age, London, 1956); P. and W. Rehberg, R. S.: Sein Leben und sein Werk (Zürich, 1954); A. Boucourechliev, S. (Paris, 1956; new ed., 1995; Eng. tr., 1959); G. Eismann, R. W.: Eine Biographie in Wort und Bild (Leipzig, 1956; second ed., aug., 1964; Eng. tr., 1964); H. Moser and E. Rebling, eds., R. S.: Aus Anlass seines 100. Todestages (Leipzig, 1956); R. Petzold and E. Crass, R. S.: Sein Leben in Bildern (Leipzig, 1956); P. Young, Tragic Muse: The Life and Works of R. S. (London, 1957; second ed., enl., 1961); K. Laux, R. S. (Leipzig, 1972); T. Dowley, S.: His Life and Times (Tunbridge Wells, 1982); P. Sutermeister, R. S.: Eine Biographie nach Briefen, Tagebuchern und Erinnerungen von R. und Clara S. (Tübingen, 1982); R. Taylor, R. S.: His Life and Work (London, 1982); H. Köhler, R. S.: Sein Leben und Wirken in den Leipziger Jahren (Leipzig, 1986); U. Rauchfleisch, R. S., Leben und Werk: Eine Psychobiographie (Stuttgart, 1990); B. Meier, R. S. (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1995); J. Daverio, R. S.: Herald of a “New Poetic Age” (N.Y, 1997); G. Spies, R. S. (Stuttgart, 1997); E. Burger, R. S.: Eine Lebenschronik in Bildern und Dokumenten (Mainz, 1998); W. Held, Manches geht in Nacht verloren: Die Geschichte von Clara und R. S. (Hamburg, 1998). critical, analytical: L. Mesnard, Un Successeur de Beethoven: Étude sur R. S. (Paris, 1876); F. Jansen, Die Davidsbündler: Aus R. S.s Sturm- und Drangperiode (Leipzig, 1883); B. Vogel, R. S.s Klaviertonpoesie (Leipzig, 1886); M. Friedlaender, Textrevision zu R. S.s Liedern (Leipzig, 1887); V. Joss, Friedrich Wieck und sein Verhältniss zu R. S. (Dresden, 1900); M. Katz, Die Schilderung des musikalischen Eindrucks bei S. (Giessen, 1910); I. Hirschberg, R. S.s Tondichtungen balladischen Charakters (Langensalza, 1913); E. Wolff, R. S. Lieder in ersten und späteren Fassungen (Leipzig, 1914); O. Karsten, Die Instrumentation R. S.s (diss., Univ. of Vienna, 1922); F. Schnapp, Heinrich Heine und R. S. (Hamburg, 1924); P. Frenzel, R. S. und Goethe (Leipzig, 1926); G. Minotti, Die Enträtselung des Schumannschen Sphinx-Geheimnisses (Leipzig, 1926); J. Fuller Maitland, S.’s Pianoforte Works (London, 1927); M. Cohen, Studien zur Sonataform bei R. S. (diss., Univ. of Vienna, 1928); K. Wagner, R. S. als Schüler und Abiturient (Zwickau, 1928); J. Fuller Maitland, S.’s Concerted Chamber Music (London, 1929); M. Ninck, S. und die Romantik in der Musik (Heidelberg, 1929); R. Goldenberg, Der Klaviersatz bei S. (diss., Univ. of Vienna, 1930); H. Rosenwald, Geschichte des deutschen Liedes zwischen Schubert und S. (Berlin, 1930); W. Gertler, R. S. in seinenfrüheren Klavierwerken (Wolfenbüttel, 1931); M. Schweiger, Die Harmonik in den Klavierwerken R. S.s (diss., Univ. of Vienna, 1931); W. Schwarz, S. und die Variation: Mit besonderer Berücksichtigung der Klavierwerke (Kassel, 1932); H. Kötz, Der Einfluss Jean Pauls auf R. S. (Weimar, 1933); G. Wilcke, Tonalität und Modulation im Streichquartett Mendelssohns und S.s (Leipzig, 1933); G. Minotti, Die Geheimdokumente der Davidsbündler (Leipzig, 1934); P. Kehm, Die “Neue Zeitschrift für Musik” unter S.s Redaktion: 1834–44 (diss., Univ. of Munich, 1943); I. Forger, R. S. als Kritiker: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der musikalischen Kritik und zum S.-Problem (diss., Univ. of Münster, 1948); W. Edelmann, Über Text und Musik in R. S.s Sololieder (diss., Univ. of Münster, 1950); G. Abraham, ed., S.: A Symposium (London, 1952); H. Homeyer, Grundbegriffe der Musikanschauung R. S.s: Ihr Wesen, ihre Bedeutung und Funktion in seinem literarischen Gesamtwerk (diss., Univ. of Münster, 1956); H. Pleasants, The Musical World of R. S. (N.Y., 1965); L. Plantinga, S. As Critic (New Haven, 1967); T. Brown, The Aesthetics of R. S. (N.Y., 1968); A. Gebhardt, R. S. als Symphoniker (Regensburg, 1968); E. Sams, The Songs of R. S. (London, 1969; second ed., rev., 1975); S. Walsh, The Lieder of S. (London, 1971); J. Chissel, S. Piano Music (London, 1972); A. Desmond, S. Songs (London, 1972); A. Walker, ed., R. S.: The Man and His Music (London, 1972; second ed., rev., 1976); W. Boetticher, R. S.s Klavierwerke: Entstehung, Urtext, Gestalt: Untersuchungen anhand unveröffentlicher Skizzen und biographischer Dokumente (Wilhelmshaven, 1976 et seq.); R. Hallmark, The Genesis of S.’s “Dichterliebe”: A Source Study (Ann Arbor, 1979); D. Fischer-Dieskau, R. S., Wort und Musik: Das Vokalwerk (Stuttgart, 1981; Eng. tr., 1988, as R. S., Words and Music: The Vocal Compositions); G. Moore, “Poet’s Lore” and Other S. Cycles and Songs (London, 1981); A. Gerstmeier, Die Lieder S.s: zur Musik des frühen 19. Jahrhunderts (Tutzing, 1982); H.-P. Fricker, Die musikkritischen Schriften R. S.s: Versuch eines literaturwissenschaftlichen Zugangs (Bern, 1983); J. Finson and R. Todd, eds., Mendelssohn and S.: Essays on their Music and its Context (Durham, N.C., 1984); R. Kapp, Studien zum Spätwerk R. S.s (Tutzing, 1984); F. Otto, R. S. als Jean-Paul-Leser (Frankfurt am Main, 1984); B. Borchard, R. S. und Clara Wieck: Bedingungen künstlerischer Arbeit in der ersten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts (Weinheim, 1985); D. Fischer-Dieskau, R. S.: Das Vokalwerk (Munich, 1985); B. Meissner, Geschichtsrezeption als Schaffenkorrelat: Studien zum Musikgeschichtsbild R. S.s (Bern, 1985); P. Ostwald, S.: Music and Madness (London, 1985); J. Finson, R. S. and the Study of Orchestral Composition: The Genesis of the First Symphony (Oxford, 1989); M. Waldura, Monomotivik, Sequenz und Sonatenform in Werk R. S.s (Saarbrücken, 1990); B. Appel and I. Hermstriiwer, eds., R. S. und die Dichter (Düsseldorf, 1991); N. Marston, S.: Fantasie, op.17 (Cambridge, 1992); A. Mayeda, R. S.s Weg zur Symphonie (Zürich, 1992); M. Gleiss, ed., R. S.s letzte Lebensjahre: Protokoll einer Krankheit (Berlin, 1994); D. Hoffmann-Axthelm, R. S.: “Glücklichsein und tiefe Einsamkeit”: Eine Essay (Stuttgart, 1994); R. Todd, S. and His World (Princeton, 1994); K. Leven-Keesen, R. S.s “Szenen aus Goethes Faust” (Wo0): Studien zu Frühfassungen anhand des Autographs Wiede 11/3 (Berlin, 1996); C. Westphal, R. S.; Liederkreis von H. Heine, op.24 (Munich, 1996); A. Herrmann, R. S. als Pädagoge in seiner Zeit (Berlin, 1997); W. Frobenius et al., eds., R. S.: Philologische, analytische, sozial- und rezeptionsgeschichtliche Aspekte (Saarbrücken, 1998); L. Hotaki, R. S.s Mottosammlung: Übertragung, Kommentar, Einführung (Freiburg in Breisgau, 1998).

—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire

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