Skip to main content
Select Source:

David Del Tredici

David Del Tredici

Composer

For the Record

Selected discography

Sources

Spanning almost a half-century, David Del Tredicis career as a composer has ranged from early explorations of avant-garde, atonal music to lush, neo-Romantic compositions. Often inspired by literature, he has incorporated the works of James Joyce, Lewis Carroll, Allen Ginsberg, and Paul Monette into his pieces. Although Del Tredici spent almost two decades writing works based on Carrolls Alices Adventures in Wonderland, he turned to more personal subject matter for the 2001 premiere of his Gay Life song cycle. Overcoming a series of crises that included the death of a lover from AIDS, Del Tredici now looked forward to bringing a new range of subject matter into the classical music cannon. Ive written a lot of songs celebrating sexuality, things that go places that classical music is not supposed to go, he told the San Jose Mercury News. Im very interested in legitimizing a whole range of emotions in music in a way that hasnt been done before. I do it for myself. I spent a lot of years with a lot of things hidden, and at this point in my life, I want to do it another way.

Del Tredici was born on March 16, 1937, in the northern California town of Cloverdale. His talent as a pianist was recognized early on: as an 18 year old, Del Tredici performed as a soloist with the San Francisco Symphony, leading him to joke years later to the Mercury News, I was an old child prodigy. Entering the University of California at Berkeley, the young pianist studied composition with Seymour Shifrin. After composing a number of works based on the poems of James Joyce, Del Tredici completed his degree in 1959. The young composer also studied under Roger Sessions at Princeton University, where he received a masters degree in fine arts in 1964.

During this period, Del Tredici composed a number of works that followed along in the modernist trends of the day. Predominant styles such as serial writingin which a short series of notes was repeated throughout a piece with changes in note order and pitchwere often more rewarding as an intellectual pursuit than as works that proved popular with audiences. As a 1996 American Record Guide review described Del Tredicis pieces from the period, He started out in the fifties and early sixties as a modernist Wunderkind, a master of the most extreme and organized serial writing. Its hard listening, but the talent and technical virtuosity of this fearsomely difficult music still shine through. Indeed, Del Tredici built his early career as an academic, with stints at Harvard University from 1966 to 1972, at Boston University from 1973 to 1984, and at the City University of New York (CUNY) after 1984. Eventually, Del Tredici was named a Distinguished Professor of Music at CUNY, and he enjoyed terms in residence at the New York Philharmonic and Yale University in addition to winning numerous fellowships and grants.

After composing music for everything from string quartets (I Hear an Army, 1964) to chamber ensembles

For the Record

Born on March 16, 1937, in Cloverdale, CA. Education: Graduated from University of California at Berkeley, 1959; masters degree in fine arts, Princeton University, 1964.

Performed as solo pianist, San Francisco Symphony, 1955; composed series of works based on Alices Adventures in Wonderland; taught at Harvard University, 196672, Boston University, 197384, and the City University of New York (CUNY), 1984; premiered Gay Life song cycle with San Francisco Symphony, 2001.

Awards: Pulitzer Prize in Music for In Memory of a Summer Day, 1980.

Addresses: Record company Composers Recordings, 73 Spring St., Suite 506, New York, NY 10012-5800, website: http://www.composersrecordings.com. Management Fine Arts Management, 75 Lafayette Ave., Brooklyn, NY 11217, website: http://www.fineartsmgmt.com.

(Night Conjure-Verse, 1965) to orchestras (Syzygy, 1966), Del Tredici found inspiration in Lewis Carrolls classic piece of literature, Alices Adventures in Wonderland. Significantly, the turn to such fantasy literature from the Victorian Age marked a dramatic shift in the composers musical style. Gone were the complex and sometimes frustrating explorations of serial music; in their place, a much more accessible and romantic style was now emphasized. Beginning in 1968, he worked on An Alice Symphony, a lengthy work that was finally completed in 1975. He also composed a four-part orchestra piece, Child Alice, from 1977 to 1981. The works were immensely popular with audiences, with initial releases of the Alice recordings becoming best-selling works on the classical music charts. The pieces were also performed by symphony orchestras across the country. Critics acclaimed Del Tredicis turn to more romantic themes as well; the first part of Child Alice, In Memory of a Summer Day, which debuted in 1980, won Del Tredici the Pulitzer Prize in Music.

Del Tredici explained his long-running fascination with Carroll in a National Public Radio (NPR) interview in 2001: I identified with Lewis Carroll as a man with a sexual secret, and I love the way that he managed to transmute all of that sadness and desire, frustration into charming whimsy, and much as I feel I try to do with music, to translate these feelings into something that could be looked at and could be shown and could be lovable. In the 1980s, however, just as his work was heralded by critics and audiences alike, the composer found himself struggling to come to terms with his own sexuality. Later recalling his fight against alcoholism and sex addiction during this period, Del Tredici said that his partners death from AIDS in 1993 marked a turning point, both personally and professionally. After attending a retreat for gay men, Del Tredici decided to integrate his sexuality into his work. Id been in a holding pattern compositionally, he told the Mercury News. I realized that I had the urge to be one person, not to have a surface and have to hide being gay. I wanted to celebrate being a gay man. And that led to Gay Life.

Although there were many notable gay composers in twentieth-century classical musicAaron Copland and Leonard Bernstein among themperhaps only John Coriglianos Symphony No. 1 (commonly known as the AIDS Symphony) and Rage and Remembrance took up the theme of homosexuality as Del Tredici intended to do. Obviously, he would have to break with his long pattern of drawing on Lewis Carroll; as a sign of encouragement, however, he received a commission from Michael Tilson Thomas, conductor of the San Francisco Symphony, to complete the work. Excited by the challenge, the composer began to select pieces of literature that explored various facets of gay life. When he encountered Beat-era icon Allen Ginsberg at a conference, as he later related to The Advocate, Del Tredici told the poet, Im looking for something really dirty to set to music. Ginsberg responded by giving Del Tredici his Collected Poems, one of which, Personal Ads, became part of a six-song cycle, Gay Life. The work also included poems from Paul Monette, Michael D. Calhoun, W.H. Kidde, and Thorn Gunn. The work marked both an artistic and a personal triumph for the composer. I no longer want to pretend and Im not sure what the repercussions might be, he told The Advocate. I can survive and be a serious composer and be gay. It has fallen [to] me to do it. One generations silence can become the next generations nectar.

The debut of Gay Life at the San Francisco Symphony in May of 2001 was only the most visible of a slew of new projects for Del Tredici. In May of 1998, the New York Philharmonic premiered his The Spider and the Fly under conductor Kurt Masur; that October, the San Francisco Contemporary Music Players debuted Chanas Story. Del Tredici also composed an orchestral work, Dracula, for the Eos Orchestra, which premiered in March of 1999. He also collaborated with performance artist John Kelly on the multimedia piece Brother: Songs My Mother Never Taught Me, which had its New York debut in May of 2001. With a resurgence of interest in Del Tredicis compositions, a compilation album, Secret Music: A Songbook, was released in 2001.

A respected composer and something of an icon in the gay community, Del Tredici emerged from a dark phase to enjoy the most prolific and celebrated period in his long career. Find your secret music, whatever it is, he encouraged other young artists in an NPR profile. Try and put it out there, and endure the embarrassment or shame you might feel because theres untold riches about opening your heart.

Selected discography

As composer

In Memory of a Summer Day, WEA, 1987.

Steps for Orchestra/Haddocks Eyes, New World, 1992.

(Contributor) New Chamber and Solo Music, Composers Recordings, 1993.

Syzygy, Composers Recordings, 1995.

(Contributor) Gay American Composers, Composers Recordings, 1996.

Secret Music: A Songbook, Composers Recordings, 2001.

Sources

Periodicals

American Record Guide, March/April 1996; September/October 1999.

Los Angeles Times, January 20, 2001.

San Jose Mercury News, April 29, 2001.

Online

David Del Tredici, Fine Arts Management, http://www.fineartsmanagement.com/artists/tredici.htm (September 23, 2001).

David Del Tredici, Modern Word, http://www.themodernword.com/joyce/music/del_tredici.html (September 23, 2001).

Its a Classically Gay Life, Advocate, http://www.advocate.com/html/stories/838/838_del_tredici.asp (September 23, 2001).

Other

Morning Edition, National Public Radio, May 2, 2001.

Timothy Borden

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"David Del Tredici." Contemporary Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"David Del Tredici." Contemporary Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 18, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/david-del-tredici

"David Del Tredici." Contemporary Musicians. . Retrieved December 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/education/news-wires-white-papers-and-books/david-del-tredici

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Del Tredici, David (Walter)

Del Tredici, David (Walter) (b Cloverdale, Calif., 1937). Amer. composer and pianist. Turned to comp. 1958, encouraged by Milhaud. Ass. prof. of mus., Harvard Univ. 1966–72; on mus. faculty Boston Univ. 1973–84. Teacher at City Coll. of City Univ., NY, from 1984. Pulitzer Prize in Mus., 1980. Works incl.:Night Conjure-Verse, 2 Joyce poems, sop., mez. or counterten., wind, str. qt. (1965); Syzgy, 2 Joyce poems, sop., hn., chamber orch. (1966); The Last Gospel, amplified sop., rock group, ch., orch. (1967); Pot-Pourri, amplified sop., rock group, ch., orch. (1968); The Lobster Quadrille, extract from In Wonderland, folk group, orch. (1969, rev. 1974); Vintage Alice, text from L. Carroll, amplified sop., folk group, chamber orch. (1972); Adventures Underground ( Carroll), amplified sop., folk group, orch. (1973); In Wonderland (Carroll) Part I, A Scene with Lobsters, amplified sop., folk group, orch. (1969–74), Part II, amplified sop., orch. (1975); Final Alice (Carroll), amplified sop., folk group, orch. (1976); Annotated Alice, amplified sop., folk group, orch. (1976); Child Alice, orch., in 4 parts: In memory of a summer day, Happy Voices, All in the golden afternoon, and Quaint Events (1977–81, f.p. Aspen 1984); March to Tonality, orch. (1983–5); Haddock's Eyes, sop., chamber ens. (1985–6); Steps, orch. (1990).

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Del Tredici, David (Walter)." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Del Tredici, David (Walter)." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 18, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/del-tredici-david-walter

"Del Tredici, David (Walter)." The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Music. . Retrieved December 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/del-tredici-david-walter

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Del Tredici, David

David Del Tredici (dĕl trədē´chē), 1937–, American composer, b. Cloverdale, Calif. Originally a pianist, he made his debut with the San Francisco Symphony at 16, and studied composition with Darius Milhaud (1958). He taught at Harvard (1966–72) and Boston Univ. (1973–84) before joining the faculty of the City Univ. of New York in 1984. Del Tredici has composed for orchestra (sometimes including "folk" instruments), chamber groups, piano, and accompanied voice. His early works, e.g., I Hear an Army (1964) and Syzygy (1966), are in an atonal modernist idiom and largely inspired by the verbal pyrotechnics of James Joyce. For some two decades Del Tredici manifested an obsession with Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, composing many pieces inspired by them. Usually melodic and popular with audiences, these works include An Alice Symphony (1969, rev. 1976), Final Alice (1976), In Memory of a Summer Day (1980, Pulitzer Prize), and Haddock's Eyes (1986). Since the mid-1980s many of the openly gay composer's songs and song cycles, e.g., Gay Life (2001) and Wondrous the Merge (2003), have incorporated poems that celebrate homosexual love; his style has become lusher and more romantic.

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Del Tredici, David." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Del Tredici, David." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 18, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/del-tredici-david

"Del Tredici, David." The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. . Retrieved December 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/reference/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/del-tredici-david

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.

Del Tredici, David (Walter)

Del Tredici, David (Walter)

Del Tredici, David (Walter), outstanding American composer and teacher; b. Cloverdale, Calif., March 16, 1937. He studied piano with Bernhard Abramowitsch (1954–60); also composition with Shifrin and Elston at the Univ. of Calif, at Berkeley (B.A., 1959). In the summer of 1958, he pursued training in piano at the Aspen (Colo.) Music School, where he also attended Milhaud’s composition seminar. He continued his studies in composition with Kim and Sessions at Princeton Univ. (M.F.A., 1963) and had private lessons with Helps in N.Y. In 1964 he completed his graduate studies at Princeton Univ., and also attended the Berkshire Music Center in Tanglewood that summer, returning there in 1965. In 1966–67 he held a Guggenheim fellowship, and during those summers he was composer-in-residence at the Marlboro (Vt.) Festival. From 1968 to 1972 he taught at Harvard Univ. In 1973 he taught at the S.U.N.Y. at Buffalo, and later that year became a teacher at Boston Univ. In the summer of 1975 he also was composer-in-residence at Aspen. In 1984 he became a teacher at City Coll. of the City Univ. of N.Y. He also was composer-in-residence at the American Academy in Rome in 1985, and from 1988 to 1990 he held that title with the N.Y. Phil. In 1991 he was made a prof, at the Manhattan School of Music in N.Y. In 1992 he was the featured composer at the Pacific Music Festival in Sapporo, Japan. Del Tredici has received various awards, commissions, and honors. In 1968 he received an award from the American Inst. of Arts and Letters. In 1973 and 1974 he held NEA grants. In 1980 he was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in Music for his In Memory of a Summer Day for Amplified Soprano and Orch. His Happy Voices for Orch. won a Friedheim Award in 1982. In 1984 he was elected a member of the American Academy and Inst. of Arts and Letters. Among Del Tredici’s first scores to attract notice were those inspired by James Joyce, including I Hear an Army for Soprano and String Quartet (Tanglewood, Aug. 12,1964), which immediately caught the fancy of the cloistered but influential cognoscenti, literati, and illuminati, and Night Conjure-Verse for Soprano, Mezzo-soprano, and Chamber Ensemble, which Del Tredici conducted in its San Francisco premiere on March 2, 1966. In these and other Joyce-inspired WORKS, he plied a modified dodecaphonic course in a polyrhythmic context, gravid with meaningful pauses without fear of triadic encounters. However, Del Tredici achieved his greatest fame with a series of brilliant tone pictures after Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland, in which he projected, in utter defiance of all modernistic conventions, overt tonal proclamations, fanfares, and pretty tunes that were almost embarrassingly attractive, becoming more melodious and harmonious with each consequent tone portrait. His Final Alice for Amplified Soprano, Folk Group, and Orch. (Chicago, Oct. 7,1976) secured his international reputation as a composer of truly imaginative gifts, whose embrace of tonality is evinced in scores replete with brilliant harmonies and resplendent colors.

Works

Soliloquy for Piano (Aspen, Colo., Aug. 1958); 4 Songs on Poems of James Joyce for Voice and Piano (1958–60; Berkeley, March 1, 1961); 2 Songs on Poems of James Joyce for Voice and Piano (1959; rev. 1978; Washington, D.C., Feb. 11, 1983); String Trio for Violin, Viola, and Cello (Berkeley, May 21, 1959); Fantasy Pieces for Piano (1959–60); Scherzo for Piano, 4-Hands (1960); String Quartet (1961–63; unfinished); / Hear an Army for Soprano and String Quartet (Tanglewood, Aug. 12, 1964); Night Conjure-Verse for Soprano, Mezzo- soprano or Countertenor, and Chamber Ensemble, after Joyce (1965; San Francisco, March 2, 1966); Syzygy for Soprano, Horn, and Orch., after Joyce (1966; N.Y., July 6, 1968); The Last Gospel for Woman’s Voice, Rock Group, Chorus, and Orch. (1967; San Francisco, June 15, 1968; rev. version, Milwaukee, Oct. 3,1984); Pop-Pourri for Amplified Soprano, Rock Group, Chorus, and Orch., after Carroll (La Jolla, Calif., July 28, 1968; rev. 1973); An Alice Symphony for Amplified Soprano, Folk Group, and Orch., after Carroll (1969; rev. 1976; movements 1 and 4, Illustrated Alice, for Amplified Soprano and Orch., San Francisco, Aug. 8, 1976; movements 2 and 3, In Wonderland, for Amplified Soprano, Folk Group, and Orch., Aspen, July 29, 1975; 1st complete perf., Tanglewood, Aug. 7,1991); Adventures Underground for Amplified Soprano, Folk Group, and Orch., after Carroll and Isaac Watts (1971; Buffalo, N.Y., April 13, 1975; rev. 1977); Vintage Alice: Fantascene on A Mad Tea Party for Amplified Soprano, Folk Group, and Orch., after Carroll, Jane Taylor, and God Save the Queen (Saratoga, Calif., Aug. 5, 1972); Final Alice for Amplified Soprano, Folk Group, and Orch., after Carroll, William Mee, and an unknown author (1974–75; Chicago, Oct. 7, 1976); Child Alice for Amplified Soprano(s) and Orch., after Carroll (1977–81; part 1, In Memory of a Summer Day, St. Louis, Feb. 23,1980; part 2, Quaint Events, Buffalo, Nov. 19, 1981, Happy Voices, San Francisco, Sept. 16, 1980, and All in the Golden Afternoon, Philadelphia, May 8, 1981; 1st complete perf., N.Y., April 27, 1986); Acrostic Song from Final Alice for High Voice and Piano (Lenox, Mass., Aug. 21,1982; also for Medium Voice and Piano, 1982; Chorus and Piano, N.Y., Nov. 19, 1983; Flute and Piano, N.Y., Feb. 12, 1985; Chorus and Piano or Harp, N.Y., May 16, 1986; Soprano and 10 Instruments, N.Y., Dec. 15, 1987; etc.); Acrostic Paraphrase for Harp, after the Acrostic Song from Final Alice (Tempe, Ariz., June 22, 1983); Virtuoso Alice, grand fantasy on a theme from Final Alice for Piano (1984; N.Y., Nov. 10,1987); March to Tonality for Orch. (Chicago, June 13, 1985); Haddock’s Eyes for Amplified Soprano and 10 Instruments, after Carroll and Thomas Moore (1985; N.Y., May 2, 1986); Tattoo for Orch. (1986; Amsterdam, Jan. 30,1987); Steps for Orch. (N.Y., March 8, 1990); Brass Symphony for Brass Quintet (1992); Dum Dee Tweedle for Voices and Orch., after Carroll (1993).

—Nicolas Slonimsky/Laura Kuhn/Dennis McIntire

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Del Tredici, David (Walter)." Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. 18 Dec. 2018 <https://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"Del Tredici, David (Walter)." Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 18, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/del-tredici-david-walter-0

"Del Tredici, David (Walter)." Baker’s Biographical Dictionary of Musicians. . Retrieved December 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/arts/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/del-tredici-david-walter-0

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

http://www.mla.org/style

The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.