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Valence, Aymer de, earl of Pembroke

Valence, Aymer de, earl of Pembroke (c.1270–1324). Valence's father William was a half-brother of Henry III, being a son of John's widow Isabella by her second marriage, and came to England in 1247. He fought on the king's side in the baronial wars and commanded against the Welsh in the 1280s. Aymer de Valence inherited in 1296 and spent his early years campaigning in Scotland, fighting at Falkirk (1298) and defeating Robert I Bruce at Methven in 1306. The following year he was himself defeated by Bruce at Loudoun Hill. In 1307 he was recognized as earl of Pembroke by virtue of his mother, a granddaughter of William Marshal, earl of Pembroke (d. 1219). In Edward II's reign he was at first an Ordainer but switched to the king's side after the murder of Gaveston, who was seized from his custody. He fought with the king at Bannockburn and was subsequently employed watching the Scots and on diplomatic missions. His widow founded Pembroke College, Cambridge.

J. A. Cannon

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Pembroke, Aymer de Valence, earl of

Aymer de Valence Pembroke, earl of (pĕm´brŏŏk), d. 1324, English nobleman; nephew of Aymer of Valence, bishop of Winchester. He succeeded his father, William, half-brother of Henry III, as earl of Pembroke in 1296. Sent by Edward I to suppress the Scottish uprising, he defeated Robert I at Methven (1306) but was himself defeated at Loudon Hill (1307). Under Edward II he was one of the lord's ordainers, appointed to limit the king's power. Disgusted by the murder (1312) of Piers Gaveston, the royal favorite, Pembroke switched his support to the king. He fought for Edward at Bannockburn (1314). By 1318 he had organized a moderate royalist group of barons, which mediated successfully between the king and the rebellious barons until displaced (1322) by Hugh le Despenser, the elder, and his son. Pembroke died suddenly on a diplomatic mission to France.

See study by J. R. S. Phillips (1972).

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Methven, battle of

Methven, battle of, 1306. On 19 June 1306 a small force under Robert I Bruce was surprised and routed at Methven, near Perth, by an army commanded by Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, acting for Edward I. Bruce fled, his wife and young daughter were captured, and his brother Neil subsequently taken prisoner and hanged at Berwick. But within a year Bruce regained the initiative.

J. A. Cannon

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