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Ordainers. The initial political crises of Edward II's reign culminated in 1310, when the king was forced to agree to the appointment of 21 Ordainers, chosen by a complex system of election. An initial six Ordinances were followed in September 1311 by the main Ordinances, an elaborate programme for reform of government which included a request for the exiling of the king's favourite, Piers Gaveston. Royal finance and the administration of justice were the subject of many clauses. The Ordainers included men of very different political attitudes. At one extreme was Edward I's former opponent Archbishop Winchelsey, and at the other the moderate earl of Gloucester, who was married to the king's niece and brother-in-law to Gaveston. The Ordinances were repealed in the statute of York of 1322.

Michael Prestwich