Justinian II

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Justinian II (Justinian Rhinotmetus), 669–711, Byzantine emperor (685–95, 705–11), son and successor of Constantine IV. He successfully invaded Arab territory but lost the advantage through a truce that ceded much of Asia Minor to the Arabs. His extravagance and despotism and his ministers' extortions caused a revolution (695). Justinian had his nose cut off; hence he was given the epithet Rhinotmetus [Gr.,=with the cut-off nose]. He was then exiled. Restored (705) with the help of the Bulgars, he was deposed and beheaded. A series of usurpers occupied the throne from 711. In 717 Leo III established a new dynasty.

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Justin II, d. 578, Byzantine emperor (565–78), nephew and successor to Justinian I. He allied himself with the Turks and resumed the wars with Persia. During his reign Slavs and Avars attacked the empire, and Italy was invaded by the Lombards under Alboin. He severely persecuted the Monophysites. Subject to fits of insanity, he adopted (574) the general Tiberius as his son. Tiberius was made caesar and exercised power until he succeeded Justin (578) on the latter's death.