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ad- pref. repr. L. ad (see AT) to express motion to, direction towards, etc., as advenīre arrive, adversus ADVERSE; the d was assim. to following c, f, g, l, n, q, r, s, t, producing AC-, AF-, etc.; ad- was reduced to a- before sc, sp, st (e.g. ASCEND, ASPIRE, ASTRINGENT) and gn (as in AGNATE). In OF. the double cons. of acc-, add-, agg-, etc. were reduced to single ones, and adv- became av-, and OF. words were adopted with such forms in Eng.; but in XIV these began to be latinized (as some had been in French) by the resumption of the second cons., as in address, allow, arrest.