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concerto

concerto (kənchâr´tō), musical composition usually for an orchestra and a soloist or a group of soloists. In the 16th cent. concertare and concertato implied an ensemble, either vocal or instrumental. At the end of the century concerto referred to music in which two ensembles contested with each other. By 1750 it meant music contrasting a full ensemble with soloists in alternation. The form known as concerto grosso is characterized by a small group of solo players contrasted with the full orchestra. Giuseppe Torelli (1658–1709) and Vivaldi established the concerto grosso in three movements, while Corelli used four or more, alternating fast and slow movements. These three composers were active in the development of all forms of the concerto in the baroque period. J. S. Bach's six Brandenburg concertos and the concertos of Handel represent the fullest development of the baroque type. Toward the end of the 18th cent. the solo concerto displaced the concerto grosso. Mozart established the classical concerto in three movements, the first of which is a fusion of ritornello form with the newer sonata form, for solo instrument and orchestra. Beethoven expanded the dimensions of this form, giving greater importance to the orchestra. In the 19th cent. Liszt unified the concerto by using the same themes in all movements. He used the concerto form as a showcase for virtuoso display in the solo. The concerto repertory is strongest in works for piano and violin as the solo instrument. In the 20th cent. renewed interest in the concerto grosso has been manifested by such composers as Hindemith, Bartók, and Schnittke. Although previously reliant on the principle of tonality, the solo concert adapted to atonality and serial music, as in the concertos of Schoenberg and Berg.

See A. Veinus, The Concerto (rev. ed. 1964); D. F. Tovey, Essays in Musical Analysis: Concertos (1936, repr. 1972).

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concerto

concerto (It.). Concert, concerted performance. A work in which a solo instr(s). is contrasted and blended with the orch. Earliest publication using name ‘concerto’ is Concerti di Andrea et di Gio. Gabrieli (Venice, 1587). Viadana's Cento Concerti ecclesiastici, comp. in the 1590s, developed into church concs. (concerti da chiesa) and there were also in the 17th cent. vocal concerti da camera (chamber concs.) which were adapted as purely instr. works by Torelli. Monteverdi's Book 7 of madrigals is called Concerto. From Torelli came the concerto grosso as comp. by Corelli and Handel. But the conc. for an individual player as opposed to a concertino group was developed by J. S. Bach in his hpd. concs., but note that his Italian Concerto is written for a single performer (though the effect of contrast is supplied by the effective use of the 2 manuals). Handel's organ concs. were also an important development, he being among the first to provide a cadenza in which the soloist could display his skill by extemporization. Mozart est. the style of the modern instr. conc., composing nearly 50 for various instr. combinations. Concs. are usually in 3 movts., but there are many exceptions. A significant change since the 19th cent. has been for the composer to write out the cadenzas and sometimes (e.g. Elgar's vn. conc.) to acc. them with the orch. Thus the conc. has grown according to the increasing virtuosity of soloists. See also concerto for orchestra.

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concerto

concerto Musical work for instrumental soloists accompanied by orchestra. The earliest concertos are the 17th-century Concerto grosso (a small section of soloists on various instruments, the concertino, is contrasted with the full orchestra, the ripieno) written by Corelli and Torelli. J. S. Bach's Brandenburg Concertos are fine examples of this form. Vivaldi composed most of his concertos for one soloist and orchestra and used the three-movement form (fast-slow-fast) which was to become standard in Classical music, such as the brilliant concertos of Mozart and Beethoven. In the 19th century, concertos involved increasing virtuosity, particularly in the works of Liszt and Rachmaninov. Concertos have also been written for two or three soloists (double and triple concertos).

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concerto

con·cer·to / kənˈchertō/ • n. (pl. -tos or -ti / -tē/ ) a musical composition for a solo instrument or instruments accompanied by an orchestra, esp. one conceived on a relatively large scale.

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concerto

concerto XVIII. — It., f. concertare (see CONCERT 2).

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concerto

concertobateau, chateau, gateau, gelato, mulatto, plateau •de facto, ipso facto •alto •canto, Esperanto, manteau, panto, portmanteau •antipasto, impasto - •agitato, Ambato, castrato, esparto, inamorato, legato, moderato, obbligato (US obligato), ostinato, pizzicato, rubato, staccato, tomato, vibrato, Waikato •contralto •allegretto, amaretto, amoretto, Canaletto, cornetto, falsetto, ghetto, larghetto, libretto, Loreto, Orvieto, Soweto, stiletto, Tintoretto, vaporetto, zucchetto •perfecto, recto •cento, cinquecento, divertimento, lento, memento, pimiento, portamento, Risorgimento, Sacramento, Sorrento, Trento •manifesto, pesto, presto •concerto •Cato, Plato, potato •Benito, bonito, burrito, coquito, graffito, Hirohito, incognito, Ito, magneto, Miskito, mosquito, Quito, Tito, veto •ditto • in flagrante delicto • mistletoe •pinto, Shinto •tiptoe •Callisto, fritto misto •cogito • Felixstowe • Sillitoe

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