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CALQUE, also LOAN TRANSLATION. A word or other expression formed by translating from another language, such as Shaw's superman (1903), from German Übermensch (as used by Nietzsche in 1883). The Romans calqued freely from Greek; from poiótēs (suchness), posótēs (muchness), they formed qualitas and quantitas. Calques are often used for ad hoc glossing, as with ‘suchness’ and ‘muchness’ above. Sometimes, a Greek original and its Latin calque have both entered English: apátheia and its calque indolentia provide English with both apathy and indolence. Calques are often formed from compounds in a source language: for example, German Weltanschauung becoming English ‘world-view’. They may also consist of entire translated phrases, such as ‘Time flies’ from Latin Tempus fugit and ‘that goes without saying’ from French cela va sans dire. See BORROWING, FOREIGNISM, LOAN.
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Translation , TRANSLATION The restatement of the forms of one LANGUAGE in another: the chief means of exchanging information between different language communities… Monosyllable , MONOSYLLABLE, formerly also monosyllabon. A WORD of one SYLLABLE. ‘Native’ English is often said to be inherently monosyllabic (‘Words monosillable w… Loan , Loan A loan refers to a sum of money borrowed by a corporation, an individual consumer, or another entity. Generally speaking people use loans to pay… Latin Language , Latin language, member of the Italic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. Latin was first encountered in ancient times as the language… Greek Language , Greek language, member of the Indo-European family of languages (see Indo-European). It is the language of one of the major civilizations of the worl… Loanword , LOANWORD, also loan-word, loan word. A WORD taken into one language from another: in English, garage from French, leitmotif from German. Such words a…
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