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watercolor painting

watercolor painting, in its wider sense, refers to all pigments mixed with water rather than with oil and also to the paintings produced by this process; it includes fresco and tempera as well as aquarelle, the process now commonly meant by the generic term. Gouache and distemper are also watercolors, although they are prepared with a more gluey base than the other forms. Long before oil was used in the preparation of pigment, watercolor painting had achieved a high form of sophistication. The oldest existing paintings, found in Egypt, are watercolors. The Persian artist Bihzad (15th cent.) produced exquisite miniatures of great complexity. Gouache was employed by Byzantine and Romanesque artists. In the Middle Ages, illuminated manuscripts on vellum used watercolor to produce their flat, brilliant effects. In this same manner watercolors were used during and after the Renaissance by such artists as Dürer, Rembrandt, Rubens, and Van Dyck to tint and shade drawings and woodcuts. Dürer in particular colored landscape drawings in a manner not unlike the modern method.

In the 18th cent. the modern aquarelle grew from the simple wash coloring of a drawing into a technique of complete painting. This technique became particularly popular in England, where its greatest masters were Constable and J. M. W. Turner. Rowlandson, Cozens, Girtin, Bonington, Cotman, and John and Paul Nash were also celebrated for their use of the technique. Many 19th-century painters also used watercolor extensively, mostly for landscape paintings and sometimes for portraits, but it was no longer commonly used for miniatures. The French artists Daumier, Delacroix, and Géricault, and later, Cézanne, Signac, and Dufy, employed aquarelle to a large extent, for both preliminary sketches and finished works. The American John Singer Sargent became well known for his aquarelles. Other painters in the United States, including Homer, Whistler, Prendergast, Marin, and Sheeler, painted noteworthy watercolors.

The advantages of watercolor lie in the ease and quickness of its application, in the transparent effects achievable, in the brilliance of its colors, and in its relative cheapness. Aquarelles have a delicacy difficult to achieve in oil and are equally flexible, lending themselves to immediate expression of a visual experience. Their handling demands considerable skill as overpainting of flaws is usually impossible. Watercolor was traditionally a comparatively perishable medium, vulnerable to sunlight, dust, and contact with glass surfaces, but the use of modern pigments has made it much more stable.

See G. Reynolds, A Concise History of Water Colors (1971, repr. 1986); C. Fince, Twentieth Century Watercolors (1988).

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watercolor

wa·ter·col·or / ˈwôtərˌkələr; ˈwä-/ • n. (also watercolors) artists' paint made with a water-soluble binder such as gum arabic, and thinned with water rather than oil, giving a transparent color. ∎  a picture painted with watercolors. ∎  the art of painting with watercolors, esp. using a technique of producing paler colors by diluting rather than by adding white. DERIVATIVES: wa·ter·col·or·ist n.

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gouache

gouache / gwäsh; goōˈäsh/ • n. a method of painting using opaque pigments ground in water and thickened with a gluelike substance. ∎  paint of this kind; opaque watercolor. ∎  a picture painted in this way.

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aquarelle

aquarelle(Fr.). Water-colour; sometimes musically applied to a piece of delicate texture, as in Eric Fenby's arr. for str. (1938), as Aquarelles, of Delius's 2 wordless chs. ‘To be sung of a summer night on the water’ (1917).

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gouache

gouache Watercolour paint made opaque by the addition of white. It lightens in colour when dry and cracks if used thickly. Popular among manuscript illuminators in the Middle Ages, gouache has been used by 20th-century artists.

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watercolour

watercolour Paint that is made from a pigment ground up with a water-soluble gum, such as gum arabic, and also a painting that is rendered in this medium.

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aquarelle

aquarelle XIX. — F. — It. acquerella watercolour, f. acqua :- L. aqua water.

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gouache

gouache water-colour painting with opaque colours. XIX. — F. — It. guazzo.

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aquarelle

aquarelle (ăk´wərĕl´): see watercolor painting.

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gouache

gouache (gwäsh): see watercolor painting.

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aquarelle

aquarelleAdele, Aix-la-Chapelle, aquarelle, artel, au naturel, bagatelle, béchamel, befell, bell, belle, boatel, Brunel, Cadell, carousel, cartel, cell, Chanel, chanterelle, clientele, Clonmel, compel, Cornell, crime passionnel, dell, demoiselle, dispel, dwell, el, ell, Estelle, excel, expel, farewell, fell, Fidel, fontanelle, foretell, Gabrielle, gazelle, gel, Giselle, hell, hotel, impel, knell, lapel, mademoiselle, maître d'hôtel, Manuel, marcel, matériel, mesdemoiselles, Michel, Michelle, Miguel, misspell, morel, moschatel, Moselle, motel, muscatel, nacelle, Nell, Nobel, Noel, organelle, outsell, Parnell, pell-mell, personnel, propel, quell, quenelle, rappel, Raquel, Ravel, rebel, repel, Rochelle, Sahel, sardelle, sell, shell, show-and-tell, smell, Snell, spell, spinel, swell, tell, undersell, vielle, villanelle, well, yell •Buñuel • Pachelbel • handbell •barbell • harebell • decibel • doorbell •cowbell • bluebell • Annabel •mirabelle • Christabel • Jezebel •Isabel, Isobel •nutshell • infidel • asphodel •zinfandel • Grenfell • Hillel • parallel •Cozumel • caramel • Fresnel •pimpernel • pipistrelle • Tricel •filoselle

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gouache

gouachedémarche, gouache, harsh, marsh, moustache (US mustache) •Saltmarsh

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watercolor

watercolorcolour (US color), cruller, culler, medulla, mullah, Muller, nullah, sculler, Sulla •doubler, troubler •bumbler, grumbler, stumbler, tumbler •bundler • muffler • juggler • bungler •suckler • coupler •hustler, rustler •butler, cutler •puzzler • swashbuckler • technicolor •multicolour (US multicolor) •watercolour (US watercolor)

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"watercolor." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"watercolor." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/watercolor

"watercolor." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/watercolor

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watercolour

watercolourcolour (US color), cruller, culler, medulla, mullah, Muller, nullah, sculler, Sulla •doubler, troubler •bumbler, grumbler, stumbler, tumbler •bundler • muffler • juggler • bungler •suckler • coupler •hustler, rustler •butler, cutler •puzzler • swashbuckler • technicolor •multicolour (US multicolor) •watercolour (US watercolor)

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"watercolour." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. 10 Sep. 2018 <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.

"watercolour." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 10, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/watercolour

"watercolour." Oxford Dictionary of Rhymes. . Retrieved September 10, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/watercolour

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles

Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

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The Chicago Manual of Style

http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html

American Psychological Association

http://apastyle.apa.org/

Notes:
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  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.