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Marshals of Ayacucho

Marshals of Ayacucho

Several future Peruvian presidents served under General Antonio José de Sucre at the battle of Ayacucho, which ended Spanish rule in South America in 1824. They included Agustín Gamarra of Cuzco (b. 1785), Miguel San Román of Puno (b. 1802), Manuel Ignacio Vivanco (b. 1806), Felipe Santiago Salaverry (b. 1805), and Juan Crisostomo Torrico (b. 1808), all of Lima. The military and political skills of these generals, together with the public renown they received by serving at Ayacucho, helped them to reach the pinnacle of political power, however briefly, during the turbulent post-Independence period known as the "age of the caudillos."

See alsoAyacucho, Battle of; Caudillismo, Caudillo.


Timothy E. Anna, The Fall of Royal Government in Peru (1979).

Additional Bibliography

Puente Candamo, José A. de la. La Independencia del Perú. Madrid: Editorial MAPFRE, 1992.

Walker, Charles. Smoldering Ashes: Cuzco and the Creation of Republican Peru, 1780–1840. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.

                                        Peter F. KlarÉn

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