López Michelsen, Alfonso (1913–2007)
López Michelsen, Alfonso (1913–2007)
Alfonso López Michelsen was president of Colombia from 1974 to 1978. Born on June 30, 1913, the son of Alfonso López Pumarejo (president 1934–1938 and 1942–1945), López Michelsen was educated in Bogotá, the United States, and Europe, and received his law degree in 1936. In 1958 he organized the leftist Liberal Revolutionary Movement (MRL) in opposition to the bipartisan National Front. A decade later López rejoined the official Liberal fold, becoming governor of Cesar Department in 1967, and later foreign minister. In 1974 he won the first post-Front presidential election; his program included a series of fiscal reforms and an opening to the nonviolent left. Growing popular discontent fueled by rising inflation turned violent in the general strike of September 1977. The resurgence of guerrilla activity led López, once a critic of emergency powers, to impose a state of siege in June 1975. Running again in 1982, López was defeated by the Conservative Belisario Betancur Cuartas. López's writings include Cuestiones colombianas (1955); the novel Los elegidos (1953); Colombia en la hora cero (1963), which he co-authored with Indalecio Liévano Aguirre; and his reflections on Colombia, Visiones del siglo XX colombiano a través de sus protagonistas ya muertos (2003). He died of a heart attack in Bogotá on July 11, 2007.
Hernando Gómez Buendía, Alfonso López Michelsen (1978).
Ignacio Arizmendi Posada, Presidentes de Colombia, 1810–1990 (1990).
Tirado, Thomas C. Alfonso López Pumarejo, el conciliador. Bogotá: Planeta, 1986.
Richard J. Stoller
"López Michelsen, Alfonso (1913–2007)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (January 24, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lopez-michelsen-alfonso-1913-2007
"López Michelsen, Alfonso (1913–2007)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved January 24, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lopez-michelsen-alfonso-1913-2007
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.