A word in Kriol may have several different pronunciations: policeman may be balijiman (basilect), blijiman (MESOLECT), plisman (acrolect). Most of the vocabulary is from English, in some cases with meanings altered to parallel the semantic range of equivalent words in Aboriginal languages: kukwan (from ‘cooked one’) means ripe as well as cooked. There are also some Aboriginal words: munanga a person of European descent. The grammar of Kriol shares some features with English-based PIDGINS and creoles in the Pacific: (1) The form of the transitive marker on verbs is -im/-um, as in kilim to hit, kukum to cook. Compare TOK PISIN kilim, kukim. (2) The use of bin as a completive auxiliary: Ai bin rid det buk I have read the book. Most of the limited Kriol morphology is associated with the verb and there are five prepositions which indicate grammatical relations: blonga (from ‘belong’), as in Aibin gibit im mani blonga daga I gave him some money for food; longa (from ‘long’), as in Imbin bogi longa riba He swam in the river. Other prepositions include fo for, from from, garram with, as in: Olubat bin kaman from deya They came from there; Deibin hambagam mi fo daga They pestered me for food; Melabat kaan go garram yumob We cannot go with you people. Kriol has a distinct orthography and a growing literature. In 1975, a school in Bamyili, where Kriol is a major language, was permitted to introduce it as the language of pre-school instruction. In 1979, permission was sought and obtained from the Northern Territory Department of Education for the introduction of a bilingual programme, despite opposition from those who did not consider Kriol a real language. See ABORIGINAL ENGLISH, AUSTRALIAN PIDGIN.
"KRIOL." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 19, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kriol
"KRIOL." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Retrieved April 19, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/kriol
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.