GrammarMany structural traits have been transferred from indigenous languages. Even where items derived from English are used to express grammatical categories, their patterns and meanings often follow structures in the substrate languages. For example, in most if not all of the Melanesian languages and in Tok Pisin, but not in English, there is a distinction between inclusive and exclusive first-person plural pronouns. The speaker of Tok Pisin distinguishes between we (speaker and person or persons addressed), and we (speaker and another or others, excluding anyone addressed). Where English has only we, Tok Pisin has inclusive yumi (from you and me) and exclusive mipela (from me and fellow). Although the lexical material used to make the distinction is from English, the meanings derive from categories in Melanesian languages. The element -pela (fellow) serves additional grammatical ends as a suffix marking attributives: gutpela man a good man; naispela haus a nice house; wanpela meri a woman. In the pronoun system, it appears as a formative in the first- and second-person plural, mipela (we exclusive) and yupela (you plural).
VocabularyThere are five sources of words: (1) English, which makes up most of the approximately 2,500 basic words: mi I, yu you (singular), askim a question, to ask, lukautim to take care of. (2) German, because of the German administration of the northern part of New Guinea (1884–1914): rausim to get rid of, beten to pray. (3) Spanish and Portuguese words are widely found in European-based pidgin and creole languages and also occur in Tok Pisin: save to know (from sabir/saber), pikinini a small child (from pequeño, small). (4) Polynesian languages: kaikai food, tambu taboo (from tabu). (5) Indigenous PNG languages: kiau an egg (from Kuanua, a language of East New Britain, which played an important part as a substrate language). In some cases, Tok Pisin expressions have been borrowed into the varieties of English used by expatriates in PNG: going finish (from go pinis), as in going finish sale a sale of household goods held when people leave for good.
Traditionally, Europeans have regarded Tok Pisin as a bastardized form of English. In it, some everyday vulgar words have taken on different and socially neutral meanings: baksait (from backside) the back rather than the buttocks; as (from arse) the buttocks, but extended to refer to the base or foundation of anything, as in as bilong diwai (the base or foot of a tree) and as bilong lo (the reason or cause of a law); bagarap (from bugger up) used as noun and verb, as in Em kisim bagarap (He had an accident) and Pik i bagarapim gaden (The pig ruined the garden); sit (from shit), as in sit bilong paia (shit belonging to fire: ashes); bulsitim (from bullshit) to deceive. The Tok Pisin word for excrement is locally derived: pekpek. Tok Pisin has other terms of abuse often quite different from or completely unrelated to English: puslama (sea slug) for a lazy person; tu kina meri (where kina is a unit of currency and meri means ‘woman’) for a prostitute.
Status and functionsTok Pisin has undergone structural and functional expansion. Although English is the official medium of education, Tok Pisin is used in a variety of public domains, not only in political debates in the House of Assembly (where it is the preferred medium), but also in broadcasting and journalism, and for all its new functions it has drawn heavily on English. So much English has been borrowed into the language, particularly by educated urban speakers, that there are now two main varieties: urban pidgin and rural or bush pidgin. Most of the printed material in Tok Pisin until recently has been religious, centred on a translation of the Bible. Since 1970, there has been a weekly newspaper in Tok Pisin called Wantok (one talk: one language), a word used to refer to members of one's own clan group. The use of Tok Pisin for literary purposes is becoming more common. See ENGLISH.
"TOK PISIN." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. (May 21, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tok-pisin
"TOK PISIN." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Retrieved May 21, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/tok-pisin
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.