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There are aproximately 8,000 Kalagan (Calagan, Kagan, Karagan, Laoc, Saka, Tagakaolo) living on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. They are located in the area between the interior uplands and the western coast of the Davao Gulf. Kalagan are Tagakaolo who have converted to Islam, either through intermarriage or contact with the Maguindanao. Islamization is a relatively recent development among the Tagakaolo and many older Kalagan still retain traditional beliefs. Kalagan speak Tagakaolo, a subgroup of the Central Philippine Language Group. Some Kalagan are swidden agriculturalists, while others are involved in wage labor. Maize is the major crop, and is harvested two or three times a year. Coastal Kalagan are also fishermen, and some work as plantation laborers.

See also Maguindanao


Gowing, Peter G. (1984). "Kalagans." In Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey, edited by Richard V. Weekes, 367. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press.