Estimé, Dumarsais (1900–1953)
Estimé, Dumarsais (1900–1953)
Dumarsais Estimé (b. 1900; d. 20 July 1953), president of Haiti (1946–1950). A native of Verrettes and a former mathematics teacher at the Lycée Pétion, Estimé was a member of the National Assembly and secretary of education before becoming president. He came to power on 16 August 1946 with the support of elite blacks (members of the Noiriste Party) who had been excluded from government under the regime of Élie Lescot.
Lasting until 10 May 1950, Estimé's government also drew support initially from young radicals and Communists who looked forward to a social revolution that would benefit Haiti's black masses, both workers and peasants. Although it never went far enough to satisfy leftist desires, the government did make use of its popular mandate to carry out genuine reforms. In addition to granting greater liberty of speech and the press, Estimé established a populist and nationalist program that embraced inclusion of blacks in the state patronage system; support for unions; social legislation recognizing workers' rights; public education; attempts to curb U.S. economic control of the country, in part by breaking up the Standard Fruit Company's monopoly on banana production; and the agreement with the Export-Import Bank to finance the Artibonite Valley irrigation project. Estimé also encouraged development of Haiti's tourist industry by granting credits to the hotel business and investing millions of dollars in an international fair celebrating the founding of Port-au-Prince (1949). He was exiled to the United States and died in New York City.
Rayford W. Logan, Haiti and the Dominican Republic (1968).
David Nicholls, From Dessalines to Duvalier: Race, Colour and National Independence in Haiti (1979), and "Haiti Since 1930," in The Cambridge History of Latin America, vol. 7, edited by Leslie Bethell (1990), pp. 545-577.
Smith, Matthew Jordan. "Shades of Red in a Black Republic: Radicalism, Black Consciousness, and Social Conflict in Post-Occupation Haiti, 1934–1957." Ph.D. diss., University of Florida, 2002.
Voltaire, Frantz. Pouvoir noir en Haïti: L'explosion de 1946. Mont-Royal: V & R éditeurs; Montreal: Editions du CIDIHCA, 1988.
"Estimé, Dumarsais (1900–1953)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Encyclopedia.com. (August 19, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/estime-dumarsais-1900-1953
"Estimé, Dumarsais (1900–1953)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved August 19, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/estime-dumarsais-1900-1953
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.