# Estimates of Population Parameters

**Estimates of Population Parameters** **1.** Population sizeCapture–recapture (for small population sizes) N = s/p where p = r/swhere s is the sample size captured and marked, and the sample size of the second capture; r is the number of marked individuals in the second capture; N is the population size**2.** Measures of diversity(*a*) Species diversity:(i)Simpson's indexwhereP_{i} is the proportion of individuals/biomass to the total sample of the *i*th species;s is the total number of species(ii)Shannon–Wiener index(*b*) Population diversity:(i)Nucleotide diversity (π)where L is the length of DNA sequence; n is the number of sequences examined; Π_{ij} is the number of nucleotide differences between the *i*th and *j*th sequences; Ne is the effective population size; *u* is the mutation rate(ii)Allele frequency datahomozygosity of population *j* (H_{j})heterozygosity (allele diversity) of population *j* (h_{j})h_{j} = 1 − H_{j}average heterozygosity of s populations (h_{s})gene frequency variations between populations (F_{ST})where L is the number of alleles examined of a given locus; p_{ij} is the gene frequency of allele *i* in population *j*; p̄_{i} is the average gene frequency of allele *i* in s populations(*c*)Genetic distance:(i)Genetic distance between two DNA sequences (K) using the Kimura 2 parameter modelwhere P is the proportion of transitions; Q is the proportion of transversions; K is the number of substitutions per base site(ii)Estimate of genetic distance based on allele frequencies (D)where n_{j} is the sample size of population *j*

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# Estimates of Population Parameters

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**Estimates of Population Parameters**