OriginSuch compounds derive from word-forming systems absorbed to varying degrees by many modern European languages. They have been in English since the Middle Ages, but did not become common until the influx of Neo-Latinisms during the Renaissance: mystagogue 1550, androgyn˚e 1552, troglodyte 1555, geographical and hydrographer 1559. In adopting such words, English followed French rather than German, which tended to resist NEO-LATIN compounds in favour of calques like Landwirtschaft for Latin agricultura and Lebensbeschreibung or Lebensgeschichte (description or history of life) for Greek biographia (although the term Biographie is widely used). In French, adoption was wholesale and adaptation minimal: agricultura and biographia became agriculture and biographie. From French, such items passed into English with little or no adaptation in spelling.
NatureIt is functionally unimportant whether a classical compound is first used in English, French, or any other language. The elements are international and the conventions for their adaptation well established. Greek elements are usually transmitted through Latin orthography. In this system, k usually becomes c: cardiology, not *kardiology (but note leuk(a)emia, not leuc(a)emia, and both leucocyte and leukocyte). R with rough breathing becomes rh in French and English (rhinocéros, rhinoceros) or r in Italian and Spanish (rinoceronte). On occasion, a biological term may combine Greek and Latin: Tyrannosaurus rex (Greek ‘tyrant lizard’, Latin ‘king’) and Oviraptor philoceratops (Latin ‘eggsnatcher’, Greek ‘lovable horned-face’). Some binomials contain information about people and places, such as Albertosaurus sternbergi Sternberg's Alberta lizard, and Yangchuanosaurus shangyouensis the Shanghai Yangchuan lizard. The classification for naturalists developed by such taxonomists as Carolus Linnaeus is an ad-hoc system that has its own fossils; it is as likely to mark ignorance as knowledge and to express subjective as objective comment. Linnaeus classified nonflowering plants as Cryptogamia (hidden marriage), because he did not know how they reproduced. When his successors discovered the processes involved, they left the name unchanged. When the British anatomist Richard Owen coined the name dinosaur (‘terrible lizard’, 1841) for the extinct reptiles whose skeletons were found in rock strata, Romanticism contributed more than science.
Uses and glossesThe compounds are part of technical usage and include the names of many scientific studies: biology, cardiology, meteorology. Such labels are often opaque and intimidating to people not trained in their use, with the result that, although tools of technical description, they have some of the features of a secret language. They may be difficult to pronounce, because of their length and suffix-related shifts in stress. Someone attempting an unfamiliar form can mispronounce it and retreat in confusion: for example, ‘Tonight we have someone interesting to talk to you, folks. He's an orni-, an ornitho-, a birdman’ (BBC disc jockey, live, 1970). The switch from ornithologist to birdman is part of a practice of explaining classical compounds by translation into everyday terms. Such glossing ranges from formal etymologies to informal paraphrases, as in: ‘The name “echinoderm” comes from the Greek echînos, a hedgehog, and dérma, the skin’; ‘The Archaeopteryx, whose name means “ancient wing”…’; ‘the reptile subclass Archosauria (ruling lizards)’; ‘Cosmology, the science of the universe’; ‘Coprolites or fossilized excrement’; ‘Cryptozoology, the quest for animals that scientists have yet to discover’.
Although such terms as neurology and Archaeopteryx are scientific, classical compounding is not confined to the sciences, and predates scientific method. In divination, compounds based on -mancy are numerous, including: necromancy divination through talking to the dead, nephelomancy through observing clouds, ophiomancy by inspecting snakes, pyromancy by watching flames, tyromancy by examining cheese. Sometimes compounds are used to impress and lend a cachet, as in cosmetology the art of applying cosmetics. They have also been coined for facetious and satirical purposes, as with odontopedology, the art of opening your mouth and putting your foot in it. Classical and vernacular elements combine to this end: escapology the carnival art of getting out of chains and cabinets, kiddology the art of kidding or conning people, sudsology the study of soap operas. See COMBINING FORM, INTERFIX, INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC VOCABULARY, WORD-FORMATION.
"CLASSICAL COMPOUND." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Encyclopedia.com. (September 12, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/classical-compound
"CLASSICAL COMPOUND." Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language. . Retrieved September 12, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/classical-compound
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.