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Borno, Joseph Louis E. Antoine François (1865–1942)

Borno, Joseph Louis E. Antoine François (1865–1942)

Joseph Louis E. Antoine François Borno (b. 1865; d. 19 July 1942), president of Haiti (1922–1930). Before becoming president, Borno served as minister of foreign affairs and ambassador to the Dominican Republic. He was an advocate of the U.S. intervention in Haiti, inducing the Haitian government to sign the 1915 treaty by which it pledged total cooperation with the United States.

On 12 April 1922, Borno was elected to his first term as president of Haiti. He was reelected in 1926. His first term was relatively stable, but the second ended in crisis with the United States. The combination of the poor economic conditions and the tensions arising from the U.S. occupation led to an uprising against the U.S. Marines in 1929. In 1930, he accepted President Herbert Hoover's investigating committee's recommendations that U.S. Marines be gradually withdrawn and that popular elections be held. He agreed to step down and supported the U.S. selection of Eugene Roy as provisional president until elections could be held. Roy was replaced by Stenio Vincent.

See alsoHaiti .

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Three works that relate to the U.S. occupation of and involvement in Haiti, 1915–1934, are Hans Schmidt, The United States Occupation of Haiti, 1915–1934 (1971); Arthur C. Millspaugh, Haiti Under American Control, 1915–1930 (1970); and Robert D. Heinl, Jr., and Nancy G. Heinl, Written in Blood: The Story of the Haitian People (1978).

Additional Bibliography

Blancpain, François. Haïti et les Etats-Unis: 1915–1934: Histoire d'une occupation. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1999.

Renda, Mary A. Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism, 1915–1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001.

Shannon, Magdaline W. Jean Price-Mars, the Haitian Elite and the American Occupation, 1915–1935. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.

                                     DariÉn Davis

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