Skip to main content

Bachiller y Morales, Antonio (1812–1889)

Bachiller y Morales, Antonio (1812–1889)

Antonio Bachiller y Morales (b. 7 June 1812; d. 10 January 1889), Cuban writer, historian, and archaeologist. Born in Havana, Bachiller y Morales became a lawyer and a university professor. He was persecuted and exiled by the Spanish authorities when the Ten Years' War (1868–1878) began because he favored Cuba's autonomy from Spain. He is best known for his extensive and tireless research, the basis of studies in which he brought together information that had not previously attracted attention. Perhaps the most important of these studies is his three-volume history of Cuban letters and education (Apuntes para la historia de las letras y instrucción publica de la isla de Cuba, 1859–1860), but he also made significant contributions on the period of the British domination of Havana (Cuba: Monografía histórica … desde la perdida de la Habana hasta la restauración española, 1883) and on the pre-Columbian inhabitants of Cuba (Cuba primitiva, 1880). Although Bachiller y Morales made quite a few mistakes in his haste to gather information, the efforts of modern historians would have been far less fruitful without his dedication and spadework. He died in Havana.

See alsoCuba: The Colonial Era (1492–1898) .


In the absence of English materials see Max Henríquez Ureña, Panorama histórico de la literatura cubana (1963), vol. 1, pp. 361-364. See also José Martí's piece on Bachiller y Morales, Obras completas (1963), vol. 5, pp. 141-153.

                                  JosÉ M. HernÁndez

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Bachiller y Morales, Antonio (1812–1889)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . 20 Nov. 2018 <>.

"Bachiller y Morales, Antonio (1812–1889)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . (November 20, 2018).

"Bachiller y Morales, Antonio (1812–1889)." Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture. . Retrieved November 20, 2018 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.