Abu Zayd, Hikmat
ABU ZAYD, HIKMAT
First Egyptian woman appointed to a cabinet-level position.
Originally from a village in Assiut, Hikmat Abu Zayd completed her education and began a career as a teacher at the Hilwan Secondary School in the 1940s. She then studied in England, receiving her doctorate in educational psychology in 1955. She taught at Ain Shams University and published two books before Gamal Abdel Nasser appointed her minister of social affairs in 1962. This achievement was significant in the history of Egyptian women, within the regime itself, and politically, because of Nasser's desire to co-opt female-run charitable organizations into the purview of the Arab Socialist Union.
In the nineteenth century, elite women took the lead in running many of the country's charitable organizations. They sponsored social and welfare programs that the government was unable or unwilling to support, particularly after the British occupation of 1882. Nevertheless, the 1952 revolution sought to dismantle the ancien régime and all vestiges of its power, including women's organizations. Abu Zayd's appointment in 1962 must be viewed in light of these circumstances as well as Nasser's reforms of 1961 and 1962, which included wide-ranging nationalization of industry, income redistribution, land reform, educational expansion, and family planning. Under Abu Zayd's leadership from 1962 to 1965 many charitable organizations came under state control and women's literacy programs expanded. In 1963 she presided over the first national congress convened to study issues related to women and work, which published its findings in 1964 in Characteristics of the Path Facing the Working Woman (Arabic).
see also nasser, gamal abdel.
Badran, Margot. Feminists, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Egypt. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995.
Marsot, Afaf Lutfi al-Sayyid. "The Revolutionary Gentlewomen in Egypt." In Women in the Muslim World, edited by Lois Beck and Nikki Keddie. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1978.
Sullivan, Earl. Women in Egyptian Public Life. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1986.
"Abu Zayd, Hikmat." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/abu-zayd-hikmat
"Abu Zayd, Hikmat." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. . Retrieved December 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/abu-zayd-hikmat
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.