Broadsides or broadsheet prints (pl. lubki ).
Broadsides first appeared in Russia in the seventeenth century, probably inspired by German woodcuts. Subjects were depicted in a native style. Captions complemented the printed images. The earliest lubki represented saints and other religious figures, but humorous illustrations also circulated that captured the parody spirit of skomorok (minstrel) performances of the era—especially the wacky wordplay of the theatrical entr'actes.
In the 1760s prints began to be made from metal plates, facilitating production of longer texts. Lithographic stone supplanted copper plates, but in turn gave way to cheaper and lighter zinc plates in the second half of the nineteenth century. Pedlars bought the pictures in bulk at fairs or in Moscow and sold them in the countryside. Originally acquired by nobles, the images were taken up by the merchantry, officials, and tradesmen before becoming the province of the peasantry in the nineteenth century, at which point lubok, in its adjectival form, came to mean "shoddy." It was also in the nineteenth century that the term came to refer to cheap printed booklets aimed at popular audiences.
Lubki depicted historical figures, characters from folklore, contemporary members of the ruling family, festival pastimes, battle scenes, judicial punishments, and hunting and other aspects of everyday life, along with religious subjects. The prints decorated peasant huts, taverns, and the insides of lids of trunks used by peasants when they moved to cities or factories to work. The native style of the prints was adapted by Old Believers in the nineteenth century in their manuscript printing. Avant-garde artists in the early twentieth century drew inspiration from the style in their neo-primitivist phase. An "Exhibition of Icons and Lubki" was held in Moscow in 1913.
See also: chapbook literature; old believers
Bowlt, John E. (1998). "Art." In The Cambridge Companion to Modern Russian Literature, ed. Nicholas Rzhevsky. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Brooks, Jeffrey. (1985). When Russia Learned to Read: Literacy and Popular Literature, 1861–1917. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Farrell, Dianne E. (1991). "Medieval Popular Humor in Russian Eighteenth Century Lubki. " Slavic Review 50:551–565.
"Lubok." Encyclopedia of Russian History. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 20, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lubok
"Lubok." Encyclopedia of Russian History. . Retrieved July 20, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/lubok
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.