Lennox, Matthew Stewart, 13th earl of

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Lennox, Matthew Stewart, 13th earl of [S] (1516–71). Lennox succeeded to the earldom at the age of 10 when his father was murdered: his great-grandmother was a daughter of James II of Scotland and his grandfather had been killed at Flodden. Lennox spent some years in France and was hostile to the English interest until Henry VIII gave him his niece Lady Margaret Douglas in marriage in 1544. The double royal connection made him a person of some consequence and he was handsome and personable, but largely under the influence of his wife. After the marriage he was forfeited in Scotland and spent much of his life in England. During Mary's reign, he and his wife, both catholics, were in high favour, but Elizabeth regarded them with suspicion. He was confined to the Tower in 1562 and was again in disgrace after 1565 when his son Lord Darnley married Mary, queen of Scots. Elizabeth allowed him to return to Scotland but he lost influence after his son was murdered in 1567. In 1570 Elizabeth had him elected regent for his grandson, but took the precaution of keeping the countess in England. Civil war in Scotland ensued and in 1571 he was stabbed in Edinburgh by a partisan of Mary.

J. A. Cannon