Direct state provision began in 1870, when the Liberal W. E. Forster steered through an Act intended to establish a system of efficient elementary schools in England and Wales. Locally elected school boards were to provide schools where there was a deficiency by the denominational bodies. This was the beginning of the so-called ‘dual system’ which still exists. The 1880 Act, introduced by the Liberal A. J. Mundella, imposed universal compulsory schooling under the age of 10.
The 1902 Act, the work of the Conservative A. J. Balfour, set up a co-ordinated national system of education, administered by a central Board of Education. School boards were abolished and replaced by local education authorities, consisting of elected councils of counties, county boroughs, boroughs, and urban districts, responsible for secular and voluntary schools: county and borough councils were also responsible for secondary and technical education. Grammar schools were established and free places provided for pupils from elementary schools.
The 1944 Act, introduced by Conservative R. A. Butler, stipulated that education should be organized in three stages—primary, secondary, and further, and that children were to be educated according to their age, ability, and aptitude, in grammar, technical, or modern schools. The Board of Education was replaced by a Ministry of Education and provision was made for raising the school-leaving age from 14 to 15: it was raised to 16 in 1972. The Act remained in force for the next four decades, but selection for the different schools caused difficulty. Labour governments from 1964 encouraged comprehensive schooling and many grammar schools were converted, closed, or became independent. Concern in the 1990s about the quality of education in comprehensive schools provoked considerable discussion and a number of initiatives aimed at raising standards, but private education remained an attractive alternative to parents who could afford the fees.
Miss Charlotte M. Lythe
"Education Acts." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (April 25, 2019). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/education-acts
"Education Acts." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved April 25, 2019 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/education-acts
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.