The term was first used in England in the 14th cent. Grammar schools were under ecclesiastical supervision, but endowments were made by other institutions, such as guilds, charities, and hospitals. The grammar school was recognized as providing a training for future churchmen: Henry VI founded Eton College (1440), and Cardinal Wolsey Ipswich Grammar School (1528). From Tudor times, merchants, traders, and a number of women founded schools—Peter Blundell at Tiverton (1599) and Lady Alice Owen at Islington (1613).
After the Restoration, the grammar schools declined: they were described by Lord Chief Justice Kenyon in 1795 as ‘empty walls without scholars, and everything neglected but the receipt of salaries and emoluments’. Attempts to widen the curriculum to allow mathematics and modern languages to be taught were rejected in the Eldon judgment 1805; but in 1840 a Grammar School Act allowed a wider range of subjects. Some of the schools had developed into non-local boarding schools: from these emerged the public school. The Endowed Schools Act 1869 helped to reform grammar schools, following the report of the Taunton Commission in 1868, including provision for girls. The 1902 Education Act established a system of municipal and county schools alongside the older grammar schools, which were popularly known as grammar schools. Because of the spread of comprehensive education from the mid-1960s, by 1990 only about 7 per cent of local authorities had retained grammar schools. Growing disenchantment with comprehensive education led to the grammar schools being regarded in the later 1990s with more favour.
"grammar schools." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 12, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/grammar-schools
"grammar schools." The Oxford Companion to British History. . Retrieved December 12, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/grammar-schools
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.