Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
Carnegie's most influential advisers, elder statesman Elihu Root, and the president of Columbia University, Nicholas Murray Butler, chose as trustees leading businessmen, influential members of Congress, and notable educators, bypassing longtime, more outspoken peace advocates. The politically conservative Endowment leaders, Root and Butler, thus created an organization for “scientific research” rather than active advocacy of peace. In World War I, the endowment curtailed its activities instead of advocating U.S. mediation or nonintervention.
The endowment's accomplishments in the areas of research and publication during the interwar period were impressive. Its projects included a monumental study, Economic and Social History of the World War (more than 100 volumes); many other studies of economics and international law; financing of overseas exchange visits by educators and journalists; creation of “International Mind” alcoves in libraries; and the endowing of university chairs in International Relations. The endowment published the scholarly journal International Conciliation until 1972, when the organization became associated with Foreign Policy magazine. After World War II, the endowment gave support and encouragement to the work of the United Nations.
The endowment's trustees were always careful to avoid controversy. At its founding, many in the peace movement hoped Carnegie's gift would establish a powerful advocacy organization; instead, it became an early prototype of the policy research institute.
[See also Peace; Peace and Antiwar Movements.]
Carnegie Endowment for International Peace , Yearbooks (1910–).
Michael A. Lutzker , The Formation of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace: A Study of the Establishment‐Centered Peace Movement, 1910–1914, in Building the Organizational Society, ed. Jerry Israel, 1972.
Michael A. Lutzker
"Carnegie Endowment for International Peace." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (March 24, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/carnegie-endowment-international-peace
"Carnegie Endowment for International Peace." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved March 24, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/carnegie-endowment-international-peace
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.