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Carneiro de Campos, José Joaquím (1768–1836)

Carneiro de Campos, José Joaquím (1768–1836)

José Joaquím Carneiro de Campos (Caravelas, Marquês de; b. 4 March 1768; d. 8 September 1836), Brazilian statesman. Campos first pursued a religious career as a Benedictine monk, but then abandoned the ecclesiastic life to study law in Coimbra, Portugal. After receiving a doctor of jurisprudence degree, Campos began his political career in the kingdom of Portugal. He followed the royal family into exile in Brazil in 1807, shortly before the Napoleonic invasion. As aide to Prince Regent Dom João (later João VI), Campos rose quickly within the court. After independence in September 1822, Campos was elected to the constituent assembly, where he was one of the principal authors of the constitution of the monarchy. By 1823 Campos was already a cabinet member. In 1826 he was elected to the Senate from Bahia and ennobled by Emperor Pedro I. Subsequently, he served twice more in the cabinet during the First Empire (1822–1831).

José Campos and his brother Francisco, also a senator and cabinet officer, were as politically prominent as the Andrada Brothers of São Paulo and the Cavalcanti brothers from Pernambuco. In April 1831, when Pedro I abdicated and retreated to Portugal, Campos was one of the three provisional regents elected to govern Brazil in the name of the child emperor, Pedro II. In June 1831 Campos was elected one of the three permanent regents who ruled in Pedro's name until 1835.

See alsoBrazil: The Empire (First); Brazil: The Regency.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Sacramento Augusto Victorino Alves Blake, Diccionario bibliographico brasileiro, 7 vols. (1897).

Eul-Soo Pang, In Pursuit of Honor and Power: Noblemen of the Southern Cross in Nineteenth-Century Brazil (1988).

                                   Eul-Soo Pang

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