Drawing upon his experience organizing colonial constabularies, Butler attempted to militarize Philadelphia's police force as its director (1924–25) during the Prohibition era, and became a leading proponent of national paramilitary police reform in the late twenties and early thirties. After premature retirement from the Marines as a major general in 1931, he renounced war and imperialism, becoming the most prominent leader of the formidable veterans' antiwar movement during the isolationist era of the mid‐ and late 1930s.
[See also Marine Corps, U.S.: 1865–1914 and 1914–45.]
Smedley D. Butler , War Is a Racket, 1935.
Hans Schmidt , Maverick Marine: General Smedley D. Butler and the Contradictions of American Military History, 1987.
Hans R. Schmidt
"Butler, Smedley." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Encyclopedia.com. (July 15, 2018). http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/butler-smedley
"Butler, Smedley." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. . Retrieved July 15, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/butler-smedley
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