HEART IMPLANTS. Because of the high rate of congestive heart failure, physicians in the United States sought to solve the problem through cardiac transplants. In 1964, James Hardy attempted the first such operation, inserting a chimpanzee's heart into a terminally ill patient who died three hours after the surgery. After Christiaan Barnard of South Africa made the first successful human cardiac transplant in 1967, university hospitals in the United States began using Barnard's method. Among the most successful were Norman Shumway and his team at Stanford University—they developed a combined heart and lung transplant in 1980. Meanwhile, Denton Cooley, in 1969, implanted the first completely artificial heart in a human, and in the early 1980s, Willem Kolff and Robert Jarvik produced artificial hearts to keep patients alive until donor hearts became available.
By the late 1980s, cardiac implants had become the established treatment for terminal heart disease. With immunosuppression therapies and the curtailment of infectious diseases, cardiologists overcame most implant rejections and greatly prolonged survival rates of transplant patients—80–90 percent after one year, and 70–80 percent after five years by the early 1990s. A Kentucky man successfully received the first fully self-contained artificial heart on 3 July 2001, marking a new era in heart implantation.
Medical ethicists have raised questions about priority lists for receiving heart transplants. Some physicians believe in assigning priority to primary transplant candidates because repeat transplant patients have poorer survival chances than first-time candidates. While 2,299 patients received heart transplants in 1993 in the United States, more than 3,000 remained on the waiting list at the end of that year.
Fye, Bruce W. American Contributions to Cardiovascular Medicine and Surgery. Bethesda, Md.: National Library of Medicine, 1986.
Ubel, Peter A., et al. "Rationing Failure: The Ethical Lessons of the Retransplantation of Scarce Vital Organs," Journal of the American Medical Association 270, no. 20 (November 1993): 2469–2474.
Ruth RoyHarris/c. w.
"Heart Implants." Dictionary of American History. . Encyclopedia.com. (December 18, 2018). https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/heart-implants
"Heart Implants." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved December 18, 2018 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-releases/heart-implants
Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).
Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.
Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:
Modern Language Association
The Chicago Manual of Style
American Psychological Association
- Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
- In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.