Heart Balm Acts
HEART BALM ACTS
Statutes that abrogate or restrict lawsuits brought by individuals who seek pecuniary damages to salve their broken hearts.
Heart balm actions are founded on the precept that the law disfavors any intrusion with the marital relationship or family ties. Such suits include actions for breach of marriage promise, alienation of affection, criminal conversation, and seduction.
Breach of Marriage Promise
Breach of promise actions are based on the theory that a promise made should be kept. A subscription to this principle, however, defeats the purpose of the engagement period prior to marriage that is designed to determine whether or not the couple is sufficiently compatible to get married. In certain situations, however, one party might take advantage of the other, as where a woman becomes engaged to a man merely for the purpose of gaining access to substantial wealth. In such cases, breach of promise actions can be utilized to compensate the individual who has been injured from such a relationship.
A number of states, however, have eliminated breach of marriage promise suits.
Alienation of Affection and Criminal Conversation
A legal action may be brought against an individual who intrudes upon a marital relationship. Alienation of affection means interfering in such manner as to win away the love of a husband or wife from his or her spouse.
Criminal conversation is adultery. Conversation is used to mean sexual relations in this context. These actions were designed to protect the sanctity of marriage and the family relationship. Today, suits for alienation of affection and criminal conversation have been abolished in most states.
The right to sue for seduction belonged to a father who could bring an action against a man who had sexual relations with his daughter.
At common law, the daughter did not ordinarily have the right to sue on her own behalf. A woman who was seduced by a marriage promise could sue for breach of promise if the marriage did not take place. If she became sexually involved with a man due to force or duress, she might be able to bring action for rape or assault. The general rule was, however, that regardless of whether the woman was an adult or a minor, her seduction was regarded as an injury to her father.
In early cases, a father was permitted to be awarded pecuniary damages only as compensation for services that he lost as a result of the seduction. Subsequently, fathers were also allowed to recover compensatory damages for medical expenses, as well as damages for distress or sorrow.
Seduction suits are very seldom brought in modern times and have been abolished by some states. One of the primary reasons for this is that they publicize the individual's humiliation.
Limitations on Heart Balm Actions
A majority of judges and legal scholars are in agreement that all heart balm suits should be eliminated. Most states have enacted heart balm statutes that place limitations upon the amount of recovery. The abolition of heart balm suits does not, however, prevent either individual from recovering gifts made in contemplation of marriage. Many states have ruled that gifts, such as engagement rings, must be recovered if the promise to marry is revoked.