Skip to main content

Confederate Expatriates in Brazil


CONFEDERATE EXPATRIATES IN BRAZIL. Perhaps half of the eight to ten thousand southerners who emigrated after the Civil War went to Brazil, whose Emperor Pedro II had issued a call for experienced farmers. They came from all over the South (a few came from the North as well) and represented all socioeconomic levels, but the largest groups were landowners from Alabama, Texas, and South Carolina. They put careful preparations into their journey, forming associations and sending ahead emissaries to select land for settlement. Many of them settled in the São Paulo state and founded the town of Americana a few kilometers from the town of Santa Bárbara. The climate and soil of this region was most like that of their native southern states, and the pecans and peaches they introduced thrived, as did the American varieties of corn and cotton they brought with them. Most of the expatriate farmers did not purchase slaves in Brazil, where slavery remained legal until 1888, because, except on plantations, slave labor was economically inefficient. Confederate families also settled in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Pará, Rio de Janeiro, and Santa Catarina. Some, especially those in Americana, prospered, but most only got by. The Confederates suffered from tropical insects and diseases, a lack of capital, and homesickness for friends and relatives. Although a few new hundred remained, most returned to the United States after some years.


Holloway, Thomas H. Immigrants on the Land. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1980.

Lesser, Jeffrey. Welcoming the Undesirables. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995.

Robert M.Levine

See alsoExpatriation .

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Confederate Expatriates in Brazil." Dictionary of American History. . 16 Mar. 2019 <>.

"Confederate Expatriates in Brazil." Dictionary of American History. . (March 16, 2019).

"Confederate Expatriates in Brazil." Dictionary of American History. . Retrieved March 16, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.