Toussaint LOuverture, Pierre Dominique

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Toussaint L'Ouverture, Pierre Dominique (1744–1803) Haitian revolutionary leader. In 1790, he took part in the slave revolt in Haiti, joined the Spaniards when they attacked the French in 1793, but fought for the French (1794) when they promised to abolish slavery. By 1801, Toussaint had gained control of virtually the whole island of Hispaniola. In 1802, Napoleon sought to restore French control. Toussaint was forced to surrender and died a prisoner in France. Haiti finally achieved independence in 1804.