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Toots and the Maytals

Toots and the Maytals

Reggae group

For the Record

Selected discography

Sources

When the soundtrack for the groundbreaking Jamaican film Harder They Come was released in 1972, it proved instrumental in expanding the audience for reggae music beyond the island and a small loyal fan base in the United Kingdom. A compilation of tracks by different artists, Harder They Come included two standout cuts by the Maytals, Pressure Drop, and Sweet and Dandy, both anchored by the rousing soulful vocals of Frederic Toots Hibbert. The Maytals Funky Kingston, released the following year, received worldwide distribution and cemented the groups reputation as one of the most exciting to come from Jamaica. Although it took a while to achieve international success, the Maytals had long been household names in their native Jamaica. With their distinctive blend of ska, rocksteady, and gospel-influenced three-part harmonies, they stacked up a number of hit singles for legendary producers such as Clement Sir Coxsone Dodd, Prince Buster, Byron Lee, and Leslie Kong.

Born Frederic Hibbert in the rural Jamaican town of May Pen, Toots found his voice in the Baptist church were his father was a preacher. This perhaps explains the soulful quality of Tootss singing, which has been compared to Otis Reddings. In an interview included in Chris Salewicz and Adrian Boots Reggae Explosion. The Story of Jamaican Music, Toots recounted, Every time I sound, people would make a lot of noiseclap and joyful. At singing class everybody lift me up, so I come up in the churchical order. So that is where my talent come frommost of my songs are coming from the church.

Toots left rural Jamaica and migrated to Kingston when he was about 13 years old. There he was first introduced to Rastafarianism, a religious sect indigenous to Jamaica that worships Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie as the Lion of Judah and holds the smoking of ganja (Jamaicas powerful homegrown marijuana) as a sacrament. Toots found work in a barbershop in Trench Town, a once-posh community that had become dotted with squatters shanties and the center of rasta culture. Toots was reportedly heard singing at work by Henry Raleigh Gordon and Nathaniel Jerry Mathias. The two had already cut a single, Crazy Girl, for producer Duke Reid in 1958 but it was clear, upon hearing Toots deep, soulful voice, that he could provide something special. He was asked to join them and, as Toots recounted to the authors of Reggae Explosion, I teach them harmony. I teach them to write song. And they teach me how to grow up.

In the early 1960s, the sounds of ska musica fusion of American R&B and calypso with a steady, insistent beatwere pulsing through the island. Toots, Jerry, and Raleigh formed a vocal trio and auditioned for Clement Sir Coxsone Dodd at the famous Studio One in 1962. Musical mastermind Lee Scratch Perry was reportedly instrumental in influencing Dodd to sign the

For the Record

Members include Henry Raleigh Gordon (born c. 1945), harmony vocals; Frederic Toots Hibbert (born in 1946 in May Pen, Jamaica), lead vocals; Nathaniel Jerry Mathias (born c. 1945 in Jamaica), harmony vocals.

Group formed in Kingston, Jamaica, c. 1961; released singles Hallelujah and Fever for Clement Sir Coxsone Dodds Studio One label, 1962; released single Six and Seven Books of Moses for Studio One, 1963. recorded Daddy for Byron Lee; recorded 54-46 Thats My Number for Leslie Kong, 1968; recorded the singles Do the Reggay, Monkey Man, and Pressure Drop, for Leslie Kong, 1969-70; Pressure Drop and Sweet and Dandy included on Harder They Come soundtrack, 1972; group signed to Chris Blackwells Island Records, released Funky Kingston, 1973; In the Dark, 1976; Reggae Got Soul, 1976; Hibbert released the solo album Toots in Memphis, 1988.

Awards: Jamaican Song Festival, first place for Bam Bam, 1966; Jamaican Song Festival, first place for Sweet and Dandy, 1969; Jamaican Song Festival, first place for Pomp and Pride, 1972; Stereo Review Record of the Year Award for Funky Kingston, 1976.

Addresses: Home Toots Hibbert, 74 Windward Way, Kingston 2, Jamaica, W.I., (876) 928-5013. Record company Island Jamaica, 8 Worthington Ave., Kingston 5, Jamaica, W.I, phone: (876) 968-6792-4, fax: (876) 967-6779, website: http://www.islandjamaica.com.

group. Toots, however, appeared to minimize Perrys involvement in David Katz People Funny Boy: The Genius of Lee Scratch Perry, as saying, Scratch always work for these people. He tell them, Go listen to what Toots have, go listen what the other guy have, Thats what he have to do with it.

The trio signed an exclusive contract with Dodd. Under the unlikely name the Vikings, and backed by the Studio One house band, they recorded their first single, Hallelujah. A blend of gospel- and soul-style vocals with a ska beat, Hallelujah went straight to number one. A second single, Fever, also reached the top and, in 1963, the group recorded their greatest hit to date, The Six and Seven Books of Moses.

In 1964, unhappy with Dodds minimal compensation, the trio signed with his rival, Prince Buster, best known for his own rendition of Oh, Carolina. The groups following widened in Jamaica and spread into Great Britain during their tenure with Prince Buster, but this collaboration would prove to be short-lived. In 1966 they moved on to producer Byron Lee, who dubbed them the Maytals. Hits from this period include Dog War, Daddy, Pain in My Belly, and Broadway Jungle. The Maytals were at the height of their popularity when Toots was arrested for possession of ganja and sent to prison for 18 months.

This could have been the end of the Maytals but Jerry and Raleigh waited patiently for their lead singer to return. By 1968, the time of Tootss release from prison, the ska era was coming to a close. The new sounds reflected the more violent Rude Boy culture. The Maytals negotiated this transition, returning to the scene with 54-46 Thats My Number. Recorded with producer Leslie Kong, the single recounted Tootss prison experiences and became a massive hit in both Jamaica and the United Kingdom, ushering in the era of rocksteady. By the end of the year, however, rocksteady gave way to a faster, more danceable sound.

The Maytals were the first to name this new sound in their single Do the Reggay, which solidified their position among the leading lights of Jamaican music. Michael Goodwin, writing in Rolling Stone, noted that The roots of reggae can be heard in the earliest Maytals recordingsthe African quarter tones, the insistent polyrhythms, the repeated phrases trembling on the edge of a wordless chant. Working with Kong, the Maytals recorded Monkey Man (later covered by the British group the Specials) and Sweet and Dandy, which won the 1969 Festival Song Competition. In 1971, however, Leslie Kong, with whom theyd had such a fruitful partnership, died, and the Maytals returned to working with Byron Lee.

In 1971 the Maytals were the biggest act on the island. The wide distribution of Bob Marley and the Wailers first two album, along with the soundtrack to Harder They Come broadened reggaes appeal and helped launch the Maytals, Bob Marley and the Wailers, and Jimmy Cliff to international stardom. Capitalizing on their new popularity and the appeal of their lead singer, the Maytals changed their name to Toots and the Maytals.

Funky Kingston, Toots and the Maytals first release to be distributed by Chris Blackwells Island label proved to be a critical triumph. Rock critic Lester Bangs, writing in Stereo Review, described the album as perfection, the most exciting and diversified set of reggae tunes by a single artist yet released.In the Dark followed, which included a cover version of John Denvers Take Me Home, Country Roads. The groups popularity continued through the 1970s, with the release of Reggae Got Soul, Pass the Pipe, Just Like That, Knock Out, and Toofs & The Maytals Live.

When the group disbanded in 1981 Toots began recording as a solo act with Sly Dunbar and Robbie Shakespeare. The apogee of this collaboration was the acclaimed Toots in Memphis album with Toots covering such Stax classics as Al Greens Love and Happiness. Toots reunited with the Maytals in the early 1990s and, through steady touring and the release of old and new material, new generations were introduced to their distinctive hybrid of reggae, soul, gospel, and rocksteady. At the end of the decade, Toots and the Maytals released a couple of albumsRecoup in 1997 and Ska Father In 1998with the group backed up by Sly & Robbie. Ska Father included a cover version of the Kinks You Really Got Me and was nominated for a Grammy Award as Best Reggae Album of the Year, proving Toots and the Maytals continuing viability as they prepared to enter into their fifth decade as per forming artists.

Selected discography

Never Grow Old, Studio One, 1966.

Sweet and Dandy, Beverleys, 1968.

Monkey Man, Trojan, 1970.

The Harder They Come, Island, 1972.

From the Roots, Trojan, 1973.

Funky Kingston, Trojan, 1973.

In the Dark, Trojan, 1974.

Reggae Got Soul, Island, 1976.

Pressure Drop: Best of Toots & The Maytals, Trojan, 1979.

Pass the Pipe, Island, 1979.

Just Like That, Island, 1979.

Toots Live, Island, 1980.

Knockout, Island, 1982.

Toots in Memphis, Island, 1988.

Reggae Greats, Island, 1989.

Time Tough, Island, 1996.

Recoup, Alia Son, 1997.

Live in London, Trojan, 1998.

The Very Best of Toots & The Maytals, Music Club, 1998.

Ska Father, Artists Only, 1998.

Sources

Books

Katz, David, People Funny Boy: The Genius of Lee Scratch Perry, Payback Press, Canongate Books Ltd., 2000.

Potash, Chris, editor, Reggae, Rasta, Revolution: Jamaican Music from Ska to Dub, Schirmer Books, 1997.

Salewicz, Chris, & Adrian Boot, Reggae Explosion: The Story of Jamaican Music, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2001.

White, Timothy, Catch a Fire: The Life of Bob Marley, Henry Holt & Company, 1998.

Periodicals

Rolling Stone, September 11, 1975.

Stereo Review, April 1977.

Kevin OSullivan

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