Skip to main content

Jencks, Charles Alexander

Jencks, Charles Alexander (1939– ). American architect, architectural critic, and historian. His works include many studies in which he defined a range of categories and terms, including Abstract Representation, Action Architecture, Adhocism, Camp, Cardboard Architecture, Ersatz Architecture, the evolution of High Tech which he termed ‘Slick Tech’, Late-Modern Architecture, the Modern Movement, Neo-Vernacular, New Classicism, Pop Architecture, Post-Modernism, Rational Architecture, the Semiological School, Supersensualists, Symbolic Architecture, counterfeit Trompe l'Œil (which he called ‘Superdeception’), and much else. Among his influential books may be mentioned The Language of Post-Modern Architecture (1987), Architecture Today (1988), and Post-Modern Architecture: The New Classicism in Art and Architecture (1988). More recently he has suggested that, as the simplistic dogmas of Modernism are being transformed, architecture is responding to a complex interpretation of reality based on biology, mathematics, and cosmology (among much else): that transformation has embraced Blobismus, the biomorph (or Zoömorphic architecture), Organo-Tech, and fragmentation, but his claims that a ‘new paradigm’ has been found in Deconstructivism have failed to convince everybody.


Jencks (1968, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1973a, 1977, 1979, 1980, 1980a, 1982, 1982a, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1988, 1988a, 1990, 1993, 1995, 1995a, 1995b, 1999, 1999a, 2000, 2000a, 2002, 2003);
Jencks (ed.) (1983, 1992);
Jencks & Schaarschmidt-Richter (eds.) 1995);
Jencks & Toy (eds.) 1999);
Salingaros et al. (2004);

Cite this article
Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.

  • MLA
  • Chicago
  • APA

"Jencks, Charles Alexander." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . 17 Apr. 2019 <>.

"Jencks, Charles Alexander." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . (April 17, 2019).

"Jencks, Charles Alexander." A Dictionary of Architecture and Landscape Architecture. . Retrieved April 17, 2019 from

Learn more about citation styles

Citation styles gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA).

Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list.

Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Therefore, it’s best to use citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites:

Modern Language Association

The Chicago Manual of Style

American Psychological Association

  • Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most content. However, the date of retrieval is often important. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates.
  • In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list.